Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2012, Article ID 571590, 10 pages
Clinical Study

Periodontal Status in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Clinical, Microbiological, and Histopathological Study

1Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Pondicherry 607402, India
2The Oxford College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore 560068, India

Received 17 September 2011; Accepted 21 October 2011

Academic Editor: Hessam Nowzari

Copyright © 2012 Maddipati Sreedevi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A case-control study was done to assess the influence of smoking on clinical, microbiological, and histopathological parameters. Methods. Two hundred dentate male patients (100 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) ranging between 25 and 50 years were enrolled in the study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Plaque samples were collected for microbial analysis for BANA test. Gingival biopsies were obtained from selected site for assessing histopathological changes. Results. Both groups showed almost similar plaque levels ( ), but smokers had reduced gingival (0.62 ± 0.31) and bleeding indices (28.53 ± 17.52) and an increased calculus index (1.62 ± 0.36). Smokers had an increased probing depth of 4–7 mm ( ) and overall increased CAL. No difference in microbiota was found between the two groups. Histopathologically smokers showed a decreased blood vessel density (8.84 ± 0.96) and inflammatory cells (52.00 ± 9.79). Conclusions. It is quite possible that many of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in tissue degradation in periodontitis in smokers could be quite different from those in nonsmokers.