Figure 2: (a) A primary culture model for JE is formed when a piece of masticatory mucosa is placed on the top of a Millipore filter and cultured for 7–10 days. The interface between the filter and the epithelium shows morphologically similar hemidesmosomal attachment as the epithelium-tooth interface in vivo. Into this model planktonic bacteria or bacterial products can be added to the culture medium. (b) Organotypic culture model of the JE can be accomplished by culturing fibroblasts in a collagen gel and seeding keratinocytes and placing a piece of tooth on the top. Separately grown bacterial biofilms can be added onto the cultures. Cocultures with bacterial biofilms can be used to study host-microbe interactions with this model.