International Journal of Dentistry / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Review of the Literature

Table 1

Stages of BRON-J adapted from Ruggiero et al. [17].

Stage 1Exposed bone, asymptomatic and without evidence of inflammatory, or infectious reaction in the adjacent soft tissue

Stage 2Exposed bone with associated pain, edema, and inflammation of the adjacent soft tissue and/or secondary infection

Stage 3Exposed bone, with associated pain, inflammation, and infection of the adjacent soft tissue, which is hard to manage only through oral or intravenous antibiotics therapy; the presence of extraoral skin fistula secondary to osteonecrosis or a pathologic fracture is common among patients in this stage