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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 454391, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/454391
Review Article

Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies

Section of Infection Biology, Department of Functional Bioscience, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan

Received 31 January 2014; Accepted 1 April 2014; Published 22 April 2014

Academic Editor: Masahiro Yoneda

Copyright © 2014 Tamaki Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche.