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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 857647, 5 pages
Research Article

The Detection of Candida Species in Patients with Halitosis

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Center for Oral Diseases, Fukuoka Dental College, 3-2-1 Hakataekimae, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka 812-0011, Japan
2Section of General Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan

Received 27 February 2014; Accepted 29 June 2014; Published 24 August 2014

Academic Editor: Tamaki Cho

Copyright © 2014 Chihiro Koga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To examine the effects of Candida on halitosis, the carrier state of Candida was examined in patients who made a visit with a chief complaint of halitosis. Methods. Subjects were 123 patients (42 males and 81 females) who visited our clinic, with a chief complaint of halitosis. Their average age was 45.8 years. To examine halitosis, an organoleptic test was conducted, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by gas chromatography. Tongue-coating samples collected at the initial visit were cultured in CHROMagar Candida medium. The results of a Candida culture test, an organoleptic test, and VSC measurements were examined. Results. The male-to-female ratio of the patients was about 1 : 2. Patients with severe halitosis accounted for less than 20%. In the Candida culture test, the positive rate was about 25.2%, and C. albicans was the most frequently detected. Two kinds of Candida species were detected in 75% (6/8) of the strongly Candida-positive group. The VSC measurements were correlated with the Candida culture test results. Methyl mercaptan concentration was higher in the strongly C. albicans-positive group or the subjects having two kinds of Candida species. Conclusion. We suggest that imbalance of oral microbial community exists in the strongly Candida-positive group.