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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1239842, 15 pages
Review Article

3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

1Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Foundation IRCCS Ca’ Granda Polyclinic, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
2Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Received 12 February 2016; Revised 17 April 2016; Accepted 10 May 2016

Academic Editor: Saso Ivanovski

Copyright © 2016 Farah Asa’ad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.