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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 6296854, 9 pages
Research Article

Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

1Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Årstadveien 19, 5009 Bergen, Norway
2Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Khartoum, Al-Qasr Street, 11123 Khartoum, Sudan
3Oral Health Competence Center in Western Norway, Hordaland, Årstadveien 21, 5009 Bergen, Norway
4Hamad Medical Corporation, 3050 Doha, Qatar

Received 22 October 2015; Revised 29 December 2015; Accepted 13 January 2016

Academic Editor: André Reis

Copyright © 2016 Hasaan Gassim Mohamed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG.