Figure 2: LPS alters HGF-1 mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondrial assessments were determined in permeabilized (digitonin, 1 mg/mL) HGF-1 cells following treatment with LPS (5 μg/mL) for 48 h. To measure mitochondrial respiration (a), samples were sequentially treated with GML (glutamate (10 mM) + malate (2 mM)), GMPP (glutamate (10 mM) + ADP (2.5 mM)), GMSP (glutamate (10 mM) + succinate (10 mM)), and GMSF (glutamate (10 mM) + FCCP (0.05 μM)). Respiratory control ratio (RCR, (b)) and uncoupling control ratio (UCR, (c)) were determined by the analysis indicated in the Methods (). ; .