Figure 3: LPS reduces ATP production in HGF-1 cells. To determine ATP production following LPS treatment ((a), 5 μg/mL for 48 h), Magnesium Green fluorescence (503/530 nM) was determined during respiration after calibration with ADP (2.5 mM) (). The rate of peak ATP production was then compared against the rate of oxygen consumption to determine the P : O ratio ((b), ). .