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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 3019136, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3019136
Research Article

Superfast Set, Strong and Less Degradable Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Cement

1Division of Endodontics, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Restorative Dentistry, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
3Division of Endodontics, Department of Periodontics and Endodontics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
4Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, King Abdualziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
6Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray’s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Abdullah Alqedairi; as.ude.usk@iriadeqlaa

Received 8 July 2017; Revised 16 September 2017; Accepted 24 September 2017; Published 19 October 2017

Academic Editor: Shinn-Jyh Ding

Copyright © 2017 Abdullah Alqedairi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. Despite the good sealing ability and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), its slow setting, high degradation, and weakness limit its use in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas. This study aimed to develop two new liquids to control these drawbacks. They were prepared from calcium chloride, fumed silica, and hydroxyapatite or calcium phosphate and coded “H” and “P,” respectively. Methods. Portland cement, Grey ProRoot® MTA, and white ProRoot MTA were mixed with distilled water (control) or liquid “H” or “P.” The pH, setting time, degradation rate, leachant/precipitate’ composition, compressive strength, and morphology were assessed. Results. Both liquids maintained MTA’s high alkalinity and reduced the setting time by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Both liquids, H in particular, significantly reduced the degradation rate of Grey ProRoot and White ProRoot MTA®. Calcite has been identified as the main phase of the leachant or precipitate formed during the cement’s degradation. Calcium hydroxide or hydroxyapatite was also identified with Grey ProRoot MTA mixed with H liquid. These liquids also significantly increased the compressive strength with no statistical differences between them; this was associated with the production of dense, consolidated structures. Conclusions. The modified MTA could be used in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas.