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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 5920714, 11 pages
Research Article

Osseointegration of a 3D Printed Stemmed Titanium Dental Implant: A Pilot Study

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
2School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
4School of Integrated Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
5Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
6Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Kathryn Grandfield; ac.retsamcm@dleifdnargk

Received 19 May 2017; Revised 30 August 2017; Accepted 3 October 2017; Published 19 November 2017

Academic Editor: Silvio M. Meloni

Copyright © 2017 James Tedesco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In this pilot study, a 3D printed Grade V titanium dental implant with a novel dual-stemmed design was investigated for its biocompatibility in vivo. Both dual-stemmed (n = 12) and conventional stainless steel conical (n = 4) implants were inserted into the tibial metaphysis of New Zealand white rabbits for 3 and 12 weeks and then retrieved with the surrounding bone, fixed, dehydrated, and embedded into epoxy resin. The implants were analyzed using correlative histology, microcomputed tomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological presence of multinucleated osteoclasts and cuboidal osteoblasts revealed active bone remodeling in the stemmed implant starting at 3 weeks and by 12 weeks in the conventional implant. Bone-implant contact values indicated that the stemmed implants supported bone growth along the implant from the coronal crest at both 3- and 12-week time periods and showed bone growth into microporosities of the 3D printed surface after 12 weeks. In some cases, new bone formation was noted in between the stems of the device. Conventional implants showed mechanical interlocking but did have indications of stress cracking and bone debris. This study demonstrates the comparable biocompatibility of these 3D printed stemmed implants in rabbits up to 12 weeks.