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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 6185395, 6 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Fermented Lingonberry Juice on Candida glabrata Intracellular Protein Expression

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital (HUH), University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, Box 63, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Biosciences, Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5D, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
3Division of Periodontology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 4064, 141 04 Huddinge, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to Pirjo Pärnänen; if.iknisleh@nenanrap.ojrip

Received 8 January 2017; Accepted 28 February 2017; Published 30 March 2017

Academic Editor: Vincent Everts

Copyright © 2017 Pirjo Pärnänen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lingonberries have a long traditional use in treating fungal infections on mucosal membranes, but very little is known about the exact antifungal mechanisms. We tested the effects of fermented lingonberry juice on Candida glabrata intracellular protein expression. A Candida glabrata clinical strain was grown in the presence of fermented lingonberry juice (FLJ). Also the effect of lowered pH was tested. Intracellular protein expression levels were analyzed by the 2D-DIGE method. Six proteins detected with ≥1.5-fold lowered expression levels from FLJ treated cells were further characterized with LC-MS/MS. Heat shock protein 9/12 and redoxin were identified with peptide coverage/scores of 68/129 and 21/26, respectively. Heat shock protein 9/12 had an oxidized methionine at position 56. We found no differences in protein expression levels at pH 3.5 compared to pH 7.6. These results demonstrate that FLJ exerts an intracellular stress response in Candida glabrata, plausibly impairing its ability to express proteins related to oxidative stress or maintaining cell wall integrity.