International Journal of Dentistry / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Salivary Levels of Hemoglobin for Screening Periodontal Disease: A Systematic Review

Table 2

Characteristics of the included the studies.

ReferencesSubjectsExclusion criteriaDefinition of periodontitisMeasuring methodSaliva sampleAdjustmentResults
ReactionProductsSensitivitySpecificityPositive likelihood ratioNegative likelihood ratioYouden’s index

Laboratory examination
Kugahara et al. [9]221 pregnant women (mean age: 30 ± 4 years)Current smokers and subjects with not sufficient saliva were excludedPeriodontitis (CPITN 3 and 4)Colorimetric testSalivastar-Bld0.370.914.111.440.28
Combination with LDH0.680.742.622.310.42
Nomura et al. [13]187 subjects (mean age: 37.2 ± 9.6 years)PD ≥ 4 mmColorimetric testStimulated saliva0.270.811.421.110.08
Nomura et al. [14]85 patients with chronic periodontitisClinical attachment level (CAL) of 3 mm in at least three subsequent assessmentsProgression of CAL ≥ 3 mmColorimetric testStimulated saliva0.320.681.001.000.00
Nam et al. [15]The participants were 195 patients with disabilities (aged >18 years)CPI scores of 3-4Polyclonal antibody reactionOC-HEMODIA AUTO SStimulated saliva0.410.771.781.310.18
CPI scores of 40.530.752.121.600.28
CPI scores of 3-4With questionnaire0.580.762.421.810.34
CPI scores of 4With questionnaire0.730.742.812.740.47
CPI scores of 3-4With questionnaire and age0.700.762.922.530.46
CPI scores of 4With questionnaire and age0.710.803.552.760.51
Nomura et al. [17]92 subjects (mean age: 50.03 years)Patients older than 20 years who had more than 20 teeth remaining were includedCenter for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology.Polyclonal antibody reactionOC-HEMODIA AUTO SStimulated saliva0.760.763.203.170.52

Maeng et al. [18]202 subjects (age: 20 to 79 years)Pregnant, had undergone a periodontal operation within the past month, or had an injury accompanied by oral bleeding, such as a wound or ulcerCPI scores of 3-4Polyclonal antibody reactionOC-HEMODIA AUTO SStimulated saliva0.710.561.611.930.27
CPI scores of 40.600.722.141.800.32
CPI scores of 3-4With questionnaire0.710.682.252.380.40
CPI scores of 4With questionnaire0.650.772.792.170.00
Paper strip
Burt et al. [5]136 school children, 52 adult dental hygene school students (age: 24 to 32) and 65 adults in correctional Institution (age: 18 to 66)GI score (0–0.6, <1.2, <1.21, <0.2, <0.4, <0.41)Colorimetric testG indexResting saliva
GI > 0.6School children0.420.641.171.100.06
GI > 1.20.500.631.351.260.13
GI > 0.6Innate correctional Institution0.650.762.712.170.41
GI > 1.20.670.531.431.610.20
GI > 0.2dental hygiene student0.250.640.690.85−0.11
GI > 0.40.160.670.480.80−0.17
Abbott and Caffesse [6]81 subjects (age: 15 to 60 years)GI > 0Colorimetric testG indexBefore any clinical examination0.830.632.243.710.46
GI > 11.000.461.850.46
GI > 21.000.291.410.29
Kopczyk et al. [7]50 patients with less than 20 teeth 27 (age: 27 to 72 years)Using aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Those with bleeding disorders, ulcerating oral lesions, or medical contraindicationsBOP > 30%Colorimetric testSeracultResting saliva before and after tooth brushBefore tooth brush0.191.001.230.19
BOP > 50%0.560.9718.672.200.53
BOP > 30%After tooth brush0.750.824.173.280.57
BOP > 50%0.850.662.504.400.51

Nomura et al. [8]187 subjects (mean age 37.2 ± 9.6 years)PD ≥ 4 mmColorimetric testStimulated saliva0.270.811.421.110.08
Ohshima et al. [10]92 dental school students (mean age: 22.1 years)Monoclonal antibody reactionPerioscreen SUNSTAR
Shimazaki et al. [11]1998 subjects with less than 20 teeth (age: 40 to 79)BOP ≥ 15% or at least one PD ≥ 4 mmMonoclonal antibody reactionPerioscreen SUNSTARRinse 3 ml distilled water for 10 sec 8:00 am to 11:00 am before oral examination0.690.551.531.770.24
Pham et al. [12]243 subjectsMonoclonal antibody reactionPerioscreen SUNSTAR0.750.752.963.010.50
Reed et al. [16]23 pregnant women (age: 18 to 45 years)Preexisting parathyroid disease or uncontrolled thyroid disease, multiple fetuses (e.g., twins and triplets), preexisting sickle cell disease (not trait only), sarcoidosis, Crohn’s disease, or ulcerative colitisMonoclonal antibody reactionPerioscreen SUNSTAR