Table 4: Results for the global and domain scores on the OHIP-14 ().

Study designFollow-up durationMain resultsReferences

(1) ProspectiveT0: baseline
T1: 6 weeks after surgery
T2: 6 months after surgery
T0-T1: no significant difference in the global score 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery. However, a significant increase was observed for the score on the domain functional limitation and significant decreases were observed for the scores on the domains psychological discomfort and psychological disability.
T0–T2: significant reductions in the global score and in all 7 domain scores.
Lee et al. [9]
(2) ProspectiveT0: baseline
T1: 6 weeks after surgery
T2: 6 months after surgery
T3: after orthodontic treatment (at least 12 months after orthognathic surgery and 6 months after the end of orthodontic treatment)
T0-T1: no significant changes in the global score. Significant reductions in the scores on the domains functional limitation and psychological discomfort 6 weeks after surgery.
T0–T2: significant reductions in the global score and in all 7 domain scores.
T0–T3: significant reductions in the global score and in all 7 domain scores.
Choi et al. [3]
(3) Prospective12 months after surgerySignificant reductions in scores on the domains psychological discomfort, dissatisfaction with esthetics and social disability.Rustemeyer et al. [22]
(4) Prospective8.3 months after surgerySignificant reductions in scores on the domains psychological discomfort and social disability after surgery.Rustemeyer and Gregersen [25]
(5) ProspectiveT0: 1 week before surgery
T1: 1 month after surgery
T2: 3 months after surgery
Significant differences in all scores (global and domains) at all postsurgery time points; the scores increased 1 month after surgery and substantially decreased 3 months after surgery.Corso et al. [30]
(6) ProspectiveT0: before treatment
T1: before surgery
T2: 6 months after surgery
T3: 12 months after removal of orthodontic appliance
Domain functional limitation:
Class II: the global score increased at T1 (22.84 ± 3.40) compared to that at T0 (19.18 ± 2.97) but significantly decreased at T2 (8.64 ± 3.21) and T3 (6.87 ± 2.11) ().
The scores on all the domains decreased at T2 and T3.
Class III: reduction in the global score at T1 (17.63 ± 3.83), T2 (6.71 ± 2.45) and T3 (6.24 ± 2.66) compared to that at T0 (19.86 ± 2.57) ()
The scores on all the domains decreased at T2 and T3.
Differences between groups were significant at T1 () and T2 ().
Baherimoghaddam et al. [33]
(7) ProspectiveT0: before surgery
T1: 6 weeks after surgery
T2: 6 months after surgery
Significant reductions in OHIP-14 scores at T1 and T2 compared to those of the controls.Silva et al. [35]
(8) RetrospectiveT0: 1 month before surgery
T1: 6 months after surgery
The scores for social disability, physical pain, psychological discomfort and dissatisfaction with esthetics significantly decreased after surgery in both groups.
Bimaxillary osteotomy group: social disability T0: 0.94 ± 1.22, T1: 0.38 ± 0.81; physical pain T0: 1.17 ± 1.16, T1: 0.67 ± 0.72; psychological discomfort T0: 1.55 ± 1.03, T1: 1.19 ± 1.41; dissatisfaction with esthetics T0: 2.83 ± 1.13, T1: 1.89 ± 0.99.
Bimaxillary osteotomy with genioplasty group: social disability T0: 1.33 ± 1.39, T1: 0.37 ± 0.53; physical pain T0: 1.29 ± 1.01, T1: 0.78 ± 0.75; psychological discomfort T0: 2.02 ± 1.05, T1: 0.74 ± 0.59; dissatisfaction with esthetics T0: 2.73 ± 1.14, T1: 0.41 ± 0.48.
The domains psychological discomfort and dissatisfaction with esthetics exhibited significant differences favoring the bimaxillary osteotomy with genioplasty group.
Rustemeyer and Lehmann [27]
(9) ProspectiveT0: before surgery
T1: 4–6 months after surgery
Significant reduction in the global score from T0 (13.23 ± 6.45) to T1 (3.26 ± 4.19) ().
Significant reductions in all domain scores at T1 ().
Göelzer et al. [5]
(10) RetrospectiveT0: before surgery
T1: 2 years after surgery
Significant reductions in the global score (T0: 14/T1: 4.68) and all domain scores ().Wee and Poon [28]
(11) ProspectiveT1: before surgery
T2: 1 month after surgery
T3: 6 months after treatment
T4: 12 months after treatment T5: 18 months after treatment T6: after the end of orthodontic-surgical treatment
The quality of life of the surgery-first group significantly increased at T2 compared to that at T1, but no difference was found from T4 to T6.
In the group subjected to conventional treatment, quality of life declined until T3 but in a nonsignificant manner; then, it significantly improved ().
Huang et al. [38]
(12) ProspectiveT0: before bracket placement
T1: 1 month before surgery
T2: 1 month after surgery
No significant difference was found between groups at T0 (surgery-first: 16 ± 6/conventional: 13 ± 5) or T2 (surgery-first: 2 ± 1/conventional: 3 ± 1). Significant differences were found in each group among T0, T1 and T2 ().
A significant difference was found in the conventional treatment group between T0 and T1 ().
Pelo et al. [39]