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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2019, Article ID 7315081, 8 pages
Research Article

Causes of Death in Implant Patients Treated in the Edentulous Jaw: A Comparison between 2098 Deceased Patients and the Swedish National Cause of Death Register

1Prosthodontist, Brånemark Clinic, Public Dental Health Care Service, Gothenburg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
2Associate Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry/Dental Material Science, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
3Statistician/Epidemiologist, Futurum, Academy of Health and Care, Jönköping and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Jönköping, Sweden
4Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry/Dental Material Science, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to Jan Kowar; es.noigergv@rawok.naj

Received 13 December 2018; Accepted 14 February 2019; Published 11 March 2019

Guest Editor: Wael Sabbah

Copyright © 2019 Jan Kowar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Previous research has reported an association between tooth loss and patient mortality, while the cause of death has not been elucidated. Objective. The purpose was to describe and compare the cause of death in implant patients treated consecutively in the edentulous arch with a reference population. Methods. Altogether, 3902 patients were included between 1986 and 2014. Data on the causes of death for deceased patients were compared to the Swedish National Cause of Death Register for a comparable time period. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on gender and age and tested for statistical significance. Results. Most deceased patients (2,098) died from diseases in the circulatory system (CVD; 42%) and from cancers (26%). SMR indicated a generally increased mortality (total group) compared to the reference population during inclusion (; 1986–2014). Patients treated early (1986–1996) showed a lower SMR compared to patients treated later (; 1997–2014) especially related to CVDs. Younger patients (<60 years at surgery) showed an increased mortality due to CVDs when treated late (1997–2014; SMR = 5.4, ). Elderly patients (>79 years at surgery) showed a significantly lower mortality in almost all observed causes of death (1986–2014; ) with also a significantly lower mortality due to CVDs during the early period (1986–1996; SMR = 0.3, ). Conclusion. An overall increased mortality was observed for the edentulous implant patient compared to the reference population. Elderly patients (>79 years) showed significantly lower mortality for all causes of death independent of the time period of implant surgery. Younger patients (<60 years) present an increased risk for early mortality related to CVD. SMR for all causes of death increased for patients treated late (1997–2014) as compared to patients treated early (1986–1996).