Confirmation of the Absence of Somogyi Effect in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes by Retrospective Continuous Glucose Monitoring SystemsRead the full article
International Journal of Endocrinology publishes original research articles and review articles that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.
Chief Editor, Dr. Zhongjian Xie, is based at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. He is mainly engaged in research on the skeletal and extraskeletal function of vitamin D and calcium.
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Leptin Levels in Serum or Semen and Its Association with Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis with 1138 Cases
Background. Leptin has an association with male infertility. However, only sporadic studies inconsistently reported the results. Aim and Objective. In this study, we aimed to perform a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between leptin and male infertility. Methods. This study was performed based on published articles related to leptin and infertile males. PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Ovid + Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wiley Online Library, Chinese CNKI, Chinese Chong Qing VIP, Chinese Wan Fang, and China Biology Medicine databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. All eligible works of literature were analyzed by the “meta” or “metan” command in STATA version 12.0 software. The standardized mean difference (SMD) of leptin concentration in serum or semen and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for all studies. The heterogeneity was described with I2. The sources of heterogeneity were explored via metaregression, and stratified analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were performed. Results. Nineteen studies were included in the current meta-analysis, involving 1138 cases of infertile men and 756 controls. The SMD of leptin concentration in serum was 2.002 (95% CI: 1.086, 2.918), Z-test (z) z = 4.29; , and I2 was 97.3%, . The SMD of leptin concentration in semen was 3.274 (95% CI: 2.137, 4.411), z = 5.64; , and I2 was 98.2%, . Notably, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was slightly higher in infertile men (SMD = 3.695, z = 2.33, , I2 = 98.8%, ). Other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, were also slightly higher, but the results were not statistically significant. In addition, sperm count (SMD = −4.533, 95% CI: −6.565, −2.501) and sperm motility (SMD = −7.894, 95% CI: −10.616, −5.172) inversely correlated with leptin levels in infertile males. Sperm abnormal forms did not show a statistically significant SMD of −0.076 (95% CI: −3.410, 3.258). Conclusion. Leptin plays a potential role in association with male infertility. This study may effectively reveal the relationship between leptin together with other hormones and its association with male infertility. These results may also provide opinions on precautionary measures.
Analysis of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Precocious Puberty in Girls during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Home quarantine due to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on children. Lifestyle changes have led to an increase in precocious puberty (PP) among girls, and the underlying risk factors for this remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to assess the influence of environmental, genetic, nutritional, and other lifestyle factors on the risk of PP in girls. We evaluated the incidence of new-onset PP in girls during home quarantine for COVID-19 and analyzed the potential risk factors. This was a retrospective questionnaire and medical record-based study involving 22 representative medical units from 13 cities in Henan Province, China. Girls with new-onset PP (central precocious puberty, 58; premature thelarche, 58; age, 5–9 years) between February 2020 and May 2020 were included, along with 124 healthy, age-matched controls. The number of new-onset PP cases reported during the study period was compared with that reported between February and May in 2018 and 2019. Patients’ families completed a questionnaire to assess potential risk factors. There was a 5.01- and 3.14-fold increase in the number of new-onset PP cases from 2018 to 2020 and from 2019 to 2020, respectively; the differences were statistically significant (). High-risk factors for PP included longer time spent using electronic devices, decreased exercise time, higher body mass index, vitamin D deficiency, young age (<12 years) of mother during menarche, consumption of fried food and processed meat, residence in rural areas, and consumption of off-season fruits. Thus, we found that lifestyle changes caused due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant increase in PP in girls. Management of the risk factors identified in this study may help in PP prevention.
Sex Differences in the Association of Sibship Size and Position in Sibship with Lipid Profile during Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Epidemiologic studies have reported associations of sibship size and position of the child in the sibship with multiple health outcomes, including adiposity and diabetes. However, little is known about sibling effects on lipids. Hence, this study sought to evaluate associations of the number of total, older, and younger siblings with lipid profile among adolescents. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among high school students aged 14 to 19 years, lipid levels were measured in capillary blood. Parents reported the number of siblings (total, older, and younger). Geometric means of lipids were calculated, and linear regression was used to estimate the ratio of geometric means (RoGM) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were sex stratified. Results. Of the total study sample (n = 1,584), 758 (47.9%) were boys and 826 (52.1%) were girls, with median age of 16.0 years. Total cholesterol (TC) was lower by 8% (adjusted-RoGM = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88–0.96) among boys with ≥3 older siblings compared to those with no older siblings. Similarly, boys with ≥3 younger sibling compared to those with no younger siblings had reduced TC by 7% (adjusted-RoGM = 0.93, 0.87–0.99). Moreover, an increased number of total siblings (≥4 vs. 0/1: adjusted-RoGM = 0.80, 0.67–97) and older siblings (≥3 vs. 0: adjusted-RoGM = 0.90, 0.82–0.98) were associated with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among boys. Similarly, lower levels of triglycerides (TG) were seen among boys with ≥3 older siblings compared to those with no older siblings (adjusted-RoGM = 0.87, 0.78–0.96). A higher number of younger siblings was associated with increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among boys (≥3 vs. 0: adjusted-RoGM = 1.08, 1.01–1.17). Sibship characteristics were not associated with lipids among girls. Conclusions. Increased number of total, older, and younger siblings were associated with favorable lipid profiles among adolescent boys, but not girls. Mechanisms underlying these associations need further investigations.
Association of Pathology Markers with Somatostatin Analogue Responsiveness in Acromegaly
Background. Somatotroph adenomas (SAs) exhibit a variable responsiveness to somatostatin analogue (SS-a) treatment, a process that is not well understood. We investigated established and novel histological markers as predictors of SS-a responsiveness. Methods. We retrospectively investigated pathology samples from 36 acromegalic patients that underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Clinical, hormonal, and imaging data were available in 24/36 patients, before and after SS-a treatment. Specimens were semiquantitatively analyzed with immunocytochemistry for Ki-67, KER, SSTR-2, SSTR-5, ZAC-1, E-cadherin, and AIP. Results. Collectively, 18 (50%) adenomas were each classified as densely/sparsely granulated somatotroph adenomas (DGSAs/SGSAs), respectively. Patients that received preoperative SS-a had lower expression of SSTR-2 compared to those that did not (2.0 (1.0, 3.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0, 3.0), p = 0.042). Compared with DGSAs, SGSAs had higher Ki-67 labeling index (LI) (1.0 (0.5, 1.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0, 3.5), p = 0.013), and a higher proportion of high MR T2 signal (1 (6%) vs. 6 (33%), p = 0.035), and tended to express less ZAC-1 (p = 0.061) and E-cadherin (p = 0.067). In linear regression corrected for baseline growth hormone (GH), ZAC-1 immunostaining was significantly associated with a decrease in GH levels after SS-a treatment (beta (95% confidence interval): −1.53 (−2.80, −0.26), p = 0.021). No markers were associated with changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) after treatment with SS-a. Conclusion. The novel marker ZAC-1 was associated with GH response to medical treatment with SS-a. The SGSA cases were characterized by higher Ki-67 values and MR T2 signals indicative of an inferior response to SS-a. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SA response to medical treatment.
Accuracy of Ultrasound Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules Based on Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Diagnostic Technology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Ultrasonography (US) is the most common method of identifying thyroid nodules, but US images require an experienced surgeon for identification. Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as computer-aided diagnostic systems (CAD), deep learning (DL), and machine learning (ML) have been used to assist in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, but whether AI techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules still needs to be explored. Objective. To clarify the accuracy of AI-based thyroid nodule US images for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods. A search strategy of “subject terms + key words” was used to search PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies on AI-assisted diagnosis of thyroid nodules based on US images. The summarized receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the pooled sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the performance of the diagnostic tests. The quality assessment of diagnostics accuracy studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. The Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 15 were used to process the data. Subgroup analysis was based on the integrity of data collection. Results. A total of 25 studies with 17,429 US images of thyroid nodules were included. AI-assisted diagnostic techniques had better diagnostic efficacy in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: sensitivity 0.88 (95% CI: (0.85–0.90)), specificity 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.86), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 30 (95% CI: 19–46). The SROC curve indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89–0.94). Threshold effect analysis showed a Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.17 < 0.5, suggesting no threshold effect for the included studies. After a meta-regression analysis of 4 different subgroups, the results showed a statistically significant effect of mean age ≥50 years on heterogeneity. Compared with studies with an average age of ≥50 years, AI-assisted diagnostic techniques had higher diagnostic performance in studies with an average age of <50 years (0.89 (95% CI: 0.87–0.92) vs. 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73–0.88)), (0.83 (95% CI: 0.77–0.88) vs. 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60–0.87)). Conclusions. AI-assisted diagnostic techniques had good diagnostic efficacy for thyroid nodules. For the diagnosis of <50 year olds, AI-assisted diagnostic technology was more effective in diagnosis.
Blocking REDD1/TXNIP Complex Ameliorates HG-Induced Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and EMT through Repressing Oxidative Stress
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the most common secondary kidney disease causing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms responsible for DN remain largely unknown. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is a prooxidative molecule known to contribute to diabetes mellitus and its complications. However, it has not been previously examined whether and how REDD1 can further drive renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DN. The expression of REDD1 was elevated in the kidneys of DN patients and diabetic mice in this study. By generating the DN model in REDD1 knockout mice, we demonstrated that REDD1 deficiency significantly improved apoptosis and EMT in diabetic mice. In vitro experiments showed that REDD1 generation was induced by high glucose (HG) in HK-2 cells. Similarly, the transfection of REDD1 siRNA plasmid also suppressed HG-induced apoptosis and EMT. Furthermore, we discovered that the inhibition of REDD1 suppressed the expression of Nox4-induced HG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis in HK-2 cells. In addition, HG could induce endogenous REDD1 and TXNIP to form a powerful complex. In summary, our findings demonstrate that blocking the REDD1/TXNIP complex can prevent HG-induced apoptosis and EMT by inhibiting ROS production, highlighting REDD1 as a valuable therapeutic priority site for DN.