The rs1634330 Polymorphisms in the SOST Gene Are Associated with Body Composition in Chinese Nuclear Families with Male OffspringRead the full article
International Journal of Endocrinology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.
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Galectin-3 Inhibitors Suppress Anoikis Resistance and Invasive Capacity in Thyroid Cancer Cells
Accumulating evidence suggests that galectin-3 is a histologic marker of thyroid cancer. However, the pharmacological lectin-based approach has not been well studied. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of novel galectin-3 inhibitors by treating thyroid cancer cells with different concentrations of GB1107 or TD139. At high doses, TD139, but not GB1107, reduced cell viability and clonogenicity of thyroid cancer cells. TD139 induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells, as evident by an increase in the percentage of sub-G1 cells on cell cycle analysis, caspase-3 activation, and PARP1 cleavage. Either GB1107 or TD139 significantly inhibited cell coherence and counteracted anoikis resistance. Both inhibitors decreased migratory and invasive abilities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GB1107 and TD139 treatment attenuated AKT phosphorylation and decreased the expression of β-catenin and MMP2. In conclusion, these novel galectin-3 inhibitors suppressed the anoikis resistance, motility, and invasive capacity of thyroid cancer cells at least partly through the AKT/β-catenin pathway. Galectin-3 inhibitors are potentially suitable for preclinical evaluation of treatment and/or prevention of metastatic spread in thyroid cancer.
COVID-19 and Obesity: An Epidemiologic Analysis of the Brazilian Data
Brazil has the second highest number of deaths due to COVID-19. Obesity has been associated with an important role in disease development and a worse prognosis. We aimed to explore epidemiological data from Brazil, discussing the potential relationships between obesity and COVID-19 severity in this country. We used a public database made available by the Ministry of Health of Brazil (182700 patients diagnosed with COVID-19). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize our database. Continuous data were expressed as median and analyzed by the nonparametric tests Mann–Whitney or one-sample Wilcoxon. The frequencies of categorical variables have been analyzed by chi-square tests of independence or goodness-of-fit. Among the number of deaths, 74% of patients were 60 years of age or older. Patients with obesity who died of COVID-19 were younger (59 years (IQR = 23)) than those without obesity (71 years (IQR = 20), , and η2 = 0.0424). Women with obesity who died of COVID-19 were older than men (55 years (IQR = 25) vs. 50 (IQR = 22), , and η2 = 0.0263). Furthermore, obesity increases the chances of needing intensive care unit (OR: 1.783, CI: 95%, and ), needing ventilatory support (OR: 1.537, CI: 95%, and and OR: 2.302, CI: 95%, and , for noninvasive and invasive, respectively), and death (OR: 1.411, CI: 95%, and ) of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Our analysis supports obesity as a significant risk factor for the development of more severe forms of COVID-19. The present study can direct a more effective prevention campaign and appropriate management of subjects with obesity.
Effect of Ileal Transposition (IT) on Angiopoietin-Like Protein-8 (ANGPTL8) and Pentraxin (PTX3) Plasma Level in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed High-Fat Diet (HFD)
Background. Metabolic surgery procedures are designed not only for sustained weight loss but also for achieving positive metabolic changes, including improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with an increase in energy expenditure. Based on recent findings, the present study focuses on the relationship between the effects of ileal transposition (IT), high-fat diet (HFD), and selected markers of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Methods. Forty-eight male rats were divided into two groups: HFD and control diet (CD) fed rats. After eight weeks, animals in each group were randomly assigned to two types of surgery: IT and SHAM. Thereafter, fifty percent of the animals in the HFD and CD groups had their diets changed, while the remaining half maintained their presurgery diets. Eight weeks after surgery, plasma levels of ANGPTL8, PTX3, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed. Results. The IT group pre- and postoperatively maintained on the HFD showed higher ANGPTL8 level compared to SHAM operated animals (). The effect of IT on PTX3 level in the group pre- and postoperatively maintained on a CD was not significant, and there were no differences compared to SHAM. Only the postoperative diet change to HFD increased PTX3 level in the IT operated animals (). The IT group had increased plasma adiponectin () and leptin () levels after dietary change to HFD compared to IT rats fed CD. Conclusions. This study indicates that the outcomes of metabolic surgery can be greatly modified by HFD. The effects of the IT procedure in this experiment are ambiguous and do not provide a clear answer as to whether or not they are beneficial.
Clinical and Radiological Findings in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Graves’ Ophthalmopathy
Background. Graves’ ophthalmopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical ophthalmological and MRI findings in newly diagnosed Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Methods. This study included 36 newly diagnosed Graves’ disease patients and 23 control participants. Patients and control participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination. In addition, all subjects underwent orbital MRI examination; and sizes, cross-sectional areas, and signal intensities of extraocular muscles were also measured. Results. Based on MRI measurements, the mean exophthalmos in the left eye was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to those of controls (2.04 ± 0.29 vs. 1.85 ± 0.15 cm, = 0.003). The mean long diameter of inferior oblique muscle in both the right and left eyes were significantly shorter in patients when compared to those of controls ( = 0.001, = 0.002, resp.); however, the mean long diameter of superior oblique in the left eye was longer in patients than those of controls ( = 0.001). Patients had significantly higher superior oblique muscle signal intensity than those of controls in the right eye ( = 0.01). There was no significant difference for the other parameters between the patient and control groups. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that there is no obvious change in MRI examination despite clinical ophthalmological findings in patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Unnecessary MRI examination should be avoided in this patient group due to unsatisfactory cost-effectiveness.
Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Is the Best Surrogate Marker for Insulin Resistance in Nonobese Middle-Aged and Elderly Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective. Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with metabolic profiles, including obesity and dyslipidemia. The aim of the present study was to examine how lipid profiles were associated with IR in nonobese middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1608 subjects. IR was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of at least 2.5. Results. In nonobese subjects (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, n = 996), triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–1.81, ) was an independent risk factor for IR. The best marker for predicting IR in nonobese subjects was TG/HDL-C ratio with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of 0.73 (). The optimal cut-off point to identifying IR for TG/HDL-C ratio was ≥1.50 in the nonobese population. Other markers like BMI, TG, and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C also had acceptable discriminatory power for predicting IR in nonobese population (AUC ≥ 0.7 and ). BMI had the highest AUC of 0.647 () after being adjusted, but it was not effective enough to predict IR in obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25.0, n = 612). Conclusions. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be the best reliable marker for predicting IR in the nonobese middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.
Association of Serum Melatonin Level with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objectives. Melatonin is an essential neuroendocrine hormone that participates in the regulation of sleep rhythm and cognitive function. This study aimed to determine serum melatonin levels with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods. A total of 247 T2DM patients were recruited in this retrospective study and divided into 75 subjects with MCI and 172 with normal cognition. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Their blood sample was examined for the level of melatonin and other biochemical parameters. Results. Melatonin concentration was decreased in MCI patients to non-MCI patients ( < 0.001). Melatonin level was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.202; = 0.001), diabetes duration (r = −0.282; < 0.001), serum HbA1c (r = −0.195; = 0.002), hs-CRP (r = −0.324; < 0.001), and TSH (r = −0.184; = 0.004) levels and positively correlated with MoCA score, serum HDL-C (r = 0.145; < 0.001), FT3 (r = 0.241; < 0.001), and FT4 (r = 0.169; = 0.008) levels. The multivariable analysis indicated that fewer years of formal education, longer diabetes duration, higher serum HbA1c, higher serum hs-CRP, and lower serum melatonin are the predisposing factors for MCI. Conclusion. Lower melatonin level was associated with cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM. Melatonin might serve as a potential protective molecule against cognitive dysfunction in T2DM.