Surgical Approach to Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Concomitant Thyroid Diseases: A Retrospective Single Center StudyRead the full article
International Journal of Endocrinology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.
International Journal of Endocrinology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Parathormone Levels in a Middle-Eastern Healthy Population Using 2nd and 3rd Generation PTH Assays
Background. The purpose of the current study is to determine PTH reference values in vitamin-D-replete Lebanese adults using 2nd and 3rd generation PTH assays and to look at the factors that affect PTH variations. Methods. Fasting PTH was measured using 2nd and 3rd generation Diasorin PTH assays in 339 vitamin-D-replete healthy subjects aged 18 to 63 years (230 men and 109 women) who have normal calcium levels and an eGFR ≥60 ml/mn. 25-OH vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using the Diasorin assay. Results. For the 2nd PTH generation, median (IQR) levels were 48.9 (34.9–66.0) pg/ml, and its 2.5th–97.5th percentile values were 19.7–110.5 pg/ml for 25(OH)D values between 20 and 30 ng/ml, and 19.7–110.7 pg/ml for 25(OH)D values ≥30 ng/ml. For the 3rd PTH generation, the median (IQR) values were 23.9 (17.7–30.5) pg/ml, and its 2.5th–97.5th percentile values were, respectively, 9.2 and 50.2 pg/ml for 25(OH)D values between 20 and 30 ng/ml, and 8.4 and 45.4 pg/ml for 25(OH)D values ≥30 ng/ml. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D levels were 27.5 (23.8–32.7) ng/ml. 2nd and 3rd generation PTH values are strongly correlated (r = 0.96, ), but poorly concordant (Lin’s concordance coefficient 0.365, 95% CI: 0.328–0.401) with observations beyond the 95% Bland–Altman limits of agreement. 2nd and 3rd generation PTH levels did not differ according to gender and were significantly correlated with age but not with 25(OH)D and serum calcium levels. Conclusion. Lebanese adult healthy subjects have higher 2nd and 3rd generation PTH levels compared with the reference range provided by the manufacturer. The reference range was not influenced by changing the 25(OH)D cutoff. The clinical significance of the higher PTH levels in our population should be investigated.
The Dose-Response Relationship between Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus Using Publicly Available Data: A Longitudinal Study in Japan
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between baseline serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and incident diabetes mellitus and to explore their dose-response relationship in a cohort of Japanese adults. Patients and Methods. Data were drawn from the NAGALA (NAfld in the Gifu Area, Longitudinal Analysis) study between 2004 and 2015, including hierarchical information on participants ≥18 years of age without diabetes mellitus, preexisting diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol drinking, or other liver diseases (e.g., hepatitis B/C). The final analytic sample included 15464 participants, 373 of who were diagnosed as diabetes mellitus with a maximum 13-year follow-up. The risk of incident diabetes mellitus according to baseline serum GGT was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and a two-piecewise linear regression model was developed to find out the threshold effect. Results. Being in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of GGT levels was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of incident diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 1.83 (95% CI 1.06, 3.15)), independent of age, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, BMI, SBP, triglycerides, fatty liver, ALT, AST, and fasting plasma glucose. Further analysis revealed a positive curvilinear association between GGT and incident diabetes mellitus, with a saturation effect predicted at 24 IU/L. When serum GGT level was less than 24 IU/L, the risk of developing diabetes mellitus increased significantly with an increase in serum GGT levels (HR 1.04 (1.02, 1.07), ). Besides, the association was more significant in nonsmoking participants than ex- or current-smokers ( for interaction = 0.0378). Conclusion. Serum GGT level was a significant predictor of subsequent risk of diabetes mellitus, which increased by 4% for every 1 IU/L increase in GGT when GGT was less than 24 IU/L.
PTH: Redefining Reference Ranges in a Healthy Population—The Role of Interfering Factors and the Type of Laboratory Assay
Introduction. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a linear peptide constituted by 84 amino acids and active in its 1–84 form, but a wide range of PTH forms produced by its post-transcriptional modifications are present in blood. Many assays with different specificities are commercially available. The aim of our study was to compare a 2nd and 3rd generation in healthy population in order to better define the reference range in the healthy population residing in our region. Materials and Methods. 108 subjects (53 females and 55 males) referring to the transfusion donor were enrolled in the study centre in April 2016 and underwent PTH levels measurements with a 3rd generation kit (chemiluminescent immunoassay DiaSorin Liaison) and with a 2nd generation kit (immunoradiometric assay Total Intact PTH Assay (Coated Tube), Scantibodies). Also calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and 25OHD3 were measured. A questionnaire on lifestyle and dietary habits was obtained. Results. The median PTH values obtained with the 2nd generation assay and the whole 3rd generation assay were 20.26 pg/ml and 23.11 pg/ml, respectively. Bland–Altman method showed substantial concordance between the two PTH assays, although with an overestimation of the 3rd generation method over the 2nd generation method. There was no correlation between 3rd generation PTH and 25OHD3 and creatinine. Calcium was negatively correlated with PTH only when measured with 3rd generation kit. Conclusions. On the basis of our data, obtained from healthy subjects, we can conclude that the reference range used by our laboratory was too narrow and was necessary to reestablish normal ranges according to our population. This is useful to avoid hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosis.
Osseous Manifestations of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging Findings
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a systemic endocrine disease that has significant effects on bone remodeling through the action of parathyroid hormone on the musculoskeletal system. These findings are important as they can aid in distinguishing primary hyperparathyroidism from other forms of metabolic bone diseases and inform physicians regarding disease severity and complications. This pictorial essay compiles bone-imaging features with the aim of improving the diagnosis of skeletal involvement of primary hyperthyroidism.
Analysis of the Effect of Nine Consecutive Years’ Intensive Management and Number of Times Achieving the Target Control on Endpoint Events in T2DM Patients in Sanlitun Community Health Service Center in Beijing
Objective. To investigate the effect of intensive management and achieving the target control more than 3 times on endpoint events during 9 consecutive years’ annual assessment in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in the Sanlitun Community Health Service Center in Beijing, including blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids profiles, and the joint target control. Methods. In Beijing Community Diabetes Study (BCDS), 224 patients with T2DM from the Sanlitun Community Health Service Center were enrolled in 2008. All patients were randomly assigned to the intensive management group (n = 113) and the standard management group (n = 111). All patients were followed up for nine consecutive years from January 2009 to December 2017. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected as the main indexes, and the endpoint events were also carried out at the same time. The endpoint events were analyzed by using survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier method) based on management grouping and whether achieving the target control more than 3 times or not. Results. During the nine-year follow-up, the abscission number was 35 (14.29%), among which 14 (12.39%) was in the intensive management group and 21 (18.92%) was in the standard management group. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy (6 cases, 5.41%) and diabetic nephropathy (13 cases, 11.71%) in the standard management group was significantly higher than that in the intensive management group (1 case, 0.88%; 5 cases, 4.42%), respectively (). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (). All-cause death was 23 cases, in which patients who achieved the target control (HbA1c and LDL-C) and the joint target control more than 3 times were significantly lower than that of less than 3 times (). As far as death caused by cardiovascular events, cerebrovascular events, and newly onset coronary heart disease are concerned, there were no significant differences on the aforementioned endpoint events between the two groups based on target control more than 3 times or not (). There were less incidence of new onset cerebrovascular events, stenosis or occlusion of large arteries, and diabetic microvascular complications in patients who achieved target control (HbA1c and LDL-C) and the joint target control more than 3 times than those with target control less than 3 times (). Conclusions. The intensive management can effectively reduce the occurrence of microvascular complications. The incidence of all-cause death and the other endpoint events decreased in T2DM patients who achieved the joint target control more than 3 times during the nine-year management, which improved survival time and life quality. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-13003978 and ChiCTR-OOC-15006090.
The Differential Expression of Long Noncoding RNAs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults
Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were previously found to be closely related to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Objectives. To reveal the differentially expressed lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and predict the lncRNA target genes to derive their expression profiles for the diagnosis of T2DM and LADA and their differential diagnosis. Methods. Twelve venous blood samples were collected from T2DM patients, LADA patients, and nondiseased subjects to obtain total RNAs. After removing rRNA from total RNAs to establish the desired library for sequencing, quality control and quantification analyses were carried out. The fragments per kilobase of exon model per million reads mapped (FPKM) of lncRNAs were calculated to construct the gene expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs. Fold changes (fold change: 2.0) and values ( value: 0.05, FPKM ≥ 0.1) were calculated, and then differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were screened. To obtain the significantly coexpressed lncRNA-mRNA pairs, the lncRNA target genes were deduced according to the association between adjacent sites. Results. Compared to nondiseased controls, 68,763 versus 28,523 lncRNAs and 133 versus 1035 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and significantly downregulated, respectively, in T2DM patients. For LADA patients, 68,748 versus 28,538 lncRNAs and 219 versus 805 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and significantly downregulated, respectively, relative to nondiseased controls. Compared to T2DM patients, 74,207 versus 23,079 lncRNAs and 349 versus 137 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and significantly downregulated, respectively, in LADA patients. Based on the correlation analysis, seven lncRNA-mRNA pairs (BTG2, A2M, HECTD4, MBTPS1, DBH, FLVCR1, and NCBP2) were significantly coexpressed, and two lncRNAs (ENST00000608916 and ENST00000436373) were newly discovered. Conclusion. Significant differences in lncRNA expression were discovered among the three groups. Furthermore, after predicting lncRNA expression profiles, GO/KEGG pathway analysis could deduce the target gene function.