Association of ANKRD55 Gene Polymorphism with HT: A Protective Factor for Disease SusceptibilityRead the full article
International Journal of Endocrinology publishes original research articles and review articles that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.
Chief Editor, Dr. Zhongjian Xie, is based at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. He is mainly engaged in research on the skeletal and extraskeletal function of vitamin D and calcium.
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Heat Shock Protein 70 Mediates the Protective Effect of Naringenin on High-Glucose-Induced Alterations of Endothelial Function
Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of diabetic vascular complications. Naringenin (Nar) is a flavanone bioactive isolated from citrus fruits known to have in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic properties. However, whether Nar affects endothelial function remains unclear in diabetes or under high-glucose (HG) condition. Using an in vitro model of hyperglycemia in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that Nar administration markedly attenuated HG-induced alterations of endothelial function, evidenced by the mitigation of oxidative stress and inflammation, the reduction of cell adhesion molecular expressions, and the improvement of insulin resistance. We also found that HG exposure significantly reduced the levels of intracellular heat shock protein 70 (iHSP70 or iHSPA1A) and the release of HSP70 from HUVECs. HSP70 depletion mimicked and clearly diminished the protective effects of Nar on HG-induced alterations of endothelial function. In addition, Nar treatment significantly enhanced iHSP70 protein levels through a transcription-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that Nar could protect HUVECs against HG-induced alterations of endothelial function through upregulating iHSP70 protein levels. These findings are also helpful in providing new therapeutic strategies that are promising in the clinical use of Nar for the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications.
Study of the Associations between Color Doppler Ultrasound Grading of Hyperthyroidism and Biochemical Data on Thyroid Function
Objective. The main study objective was to investigate the correlation between the color Doppler ultrasound grading of hyperthyroidism and the biochemical data of thyroid function. Methods. Seventy-six patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism based on clinical and laboratory data at our hospital. The patients were examined using color Doppler ultrasound and laboratory investigations before starting 131I treatment. First, patients were divided into two groups based on the blood flow distribution determined by ultrasound. If the blood flow signal in the parenchyma was scattered and thinned, with dispersive points and discontinuous streaky distribution, the blood flow distribution area in the sample frame was less than or equal to 1/2 of the sample frame area and was judged to be level 1. If the parenchyma was filled with diffuse blood flow signals or if most areas had depicted rich blood flow distribution when the area of blood flow distribution in the sampling frame was greater than 1/2 of the sampling frame area, it was judged to be level 2. Then, the correlations between color Doppler ultrasound grading and biochemical data of thyroid function were analyzed. The indices included FT3, FT4, TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO, and TRAb. Parameters of thyroid homeostasis, including thyroid’s secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), the total deiodinase activity (SPINA-GD), Jostel’s TSH index, and the thyrotroph thyroid hormone sensitivity index (TTSI), were calculated and compared. Results. Correlations were noted between color Doppler ultrasound grading and FT3, FT4, TRAb, SPINA-GT, TSHI, and TTSI. Moreover, FT3, FT4, TRAb, SPINA-GT, TSHI, and TTSI were higher in level 2 patients compared with level 1 patients. Conclusion. Correlations were noted between color Doppler ultrasound grading and biochemical data of thyroid function.
ADSCs Combined with Melatonin Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration through Autophagy
Background. In the early stage of nerve injury, damaged tissue is cleared by autophagy. ADSCs can promote nerve axon regeneration. However, the microenvironment of the injury was changed, and ADSCs are easily apoptotic after transplantation. Mel plays a role in the apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of ADSCs. Therefore, we investigated whether Mel combined with ADSCs promoted peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancing early autophagy of injured nerves. Materials and Methods. SD rats were randomly split into the control group, model group, Mel group, ADSCs group, ADSCs + Mel group, and 3-MA group. On day 7, autophagy was observed and gait was detected on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the 28th day, the sciatic nerve of rats’ renewal was detected. Results. After 1 w, compare with the model group, the number of autophagosomes and lysosomes and the expressions of protein of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1 in the ADSCs + Mel group were prominently increased, while the 3-MA group was significantly decreased. After 4 w, the function of the sciatic nerve in ADSCs + Mel was similar to that in the control group. Compared with the model group, the ADSCs + Mel group significantly increased myelin regeneration and the number of motor neurons and reduced gastrocnemius atrophy. Conclusions. It was confirmed that ADSCs combined with Mel could promote sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by changing the early autophagy activity of the injured sciatic nerve.
The Prevalence and Characteristics of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the prevalence of EPI varies significantly in different studies. Untreated EPI in these patients can adversely affect their nutrition and metabolism. The aim of this study is to estimate the pooled prevalence of EPI in patients with type 2 diabetes and to explore the potential risk factors. Methods. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, which included studies meeting inclusion criteria from 1960 to 1 April 2021. Relevant articles were searched using the combination of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms of “Type 2 diabetes” and “pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.” The Stata 16.0 software was used for data analyses. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence rates and 95% CI using “metaprop program.” Results. The pooled prevalence of EPI was 22% (95% CI: 15%–31%) in patients with type 2 diabetes and 8% (95% CI: 4%–14%) of them developed severe pancreatic insufficiency. In the subgroup analyses, the prevalence of EPI in type 2 diabetes was correlated with geographic location. The prevalence in Asian countries (35%, 95% CI: 22%–49%) is higher than in Europe (18%, 95% CI: 10%–29%) and Australia (9%, 95% CI: 4%–16%). Furthermore, patients with higher insulin requirements, who are more likely to be insulin-deficient, have a higher prevalence of EPI. The pooled prevalence was 27% (95% CI: 17%–37%) in type 2 diabetes with higher insulin requirement (1 group) and 15% (95% CI: 1%–40%) in patients with lower insulin requirement (2 group). In addition, the morbidity of severe EPI in the higher insulin requirement group (12%, 95% CI: 7%–19%) was sextuple as much as the lower insulin requirement group (2%, 95% CI: 0%–13%). EPI was more common in subjects younger than 60 compared with elderlies (25% vs. 19%). Conclusion. The prevalence of EPI in type 2 diabetes may be overestimated. Furthermore, the higher prevalence may be closely related to β-cell function. Endocrine disease therapy would potentially represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with type 2 diabetes and EPI.
Weight Gain and Body Composition Changes during the Transition of Thyroid Function in Patients with Graves’ Disease Undergoing Radioiodine Treatment
Objective. This study aimed at investigating the dynamic changes in the body weight and body composition in a group of patients with Graves’ disease undergoing radioiodine therapy. Methods. Seventeen patients with Graves’ disease undergoing 131I treatment and forty-three euthyroid controls were recruited. Body weight, BMI, and body composition via bioelectrical impedance were measured for the participants at baseline, hypothyroid stage, and euthyroid stage. Results. Body weight increased significantly during the transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism. However, there were no significant changes in body fat %, lean mass %, and bone mineral %. The body weight of 9 patients at the euthyroid stage exceeded their premorbid weight, while the remaining 8 patients’ weight did not exceed the premorbid weight. In the group with excessive weight gain, both body fat and lean mass increased significantly. However, in the group without excessive weight gain, only lean mass increased significantly. The patients with excessive weight gain had significantly higher body fat %, while lower lean mass % compared to patients without excessive weight gain at baseline and at the euthyroid stage. Moreover, body fat % of patients with excessive weight gain was significantly higher than that of controls, while lean mass % was significantly lower than that of controls. There was no difference of body fat % and lean mass % between patients without excessive weight gain and controls. Conclusion. 131I treatment caused significant weight gain in patients with Graves’ disease. An undesirable body composition at presentation may be a risk factor for excessive weight gain after hyperthyroidism treatment.
Evaluation of Knowledge, Awareness, and Factors Associated with Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study
Background and objectives. Lack of knowledge and awareness about the disease is generally associated with wicked health outcomes. Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disease, affecting people of both genders and across all age groups, and is currently considered a major public health challenge globally. This study aims to assess the public’s knowledge, awareness, and associated demographic factors among general community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out for over 4 months from May to August 2020 using a self-administered, anonymous online questionnaire. All adults of both genders were invited to participate in the study. Individuals who are able to read and understand the English language were included in the study. Data were descriptively analyzed using a statistical package for social science version 26 (SPSS). Results. A total of 427 subjects responded to the questionnaires. More than half of them were male 253 (59.3%), while 174 (40.7%) were female, approximately 49% had a university degree, and 196 (45.9%) were postgraduates. The mean age of the participants was 25.7 ± 6.2 (mean ± SD). Most of them were single 230 (53.9%). The majority of the respondents 367 (85.9%) had heard of hyperglycemia, while a comparable number of 366 (85.7%) were aware of it being a lifelong disease. About 305 (71.4%) of participants knew that genetic factors were associated with hyperglycemia, and more than half of 250 (58.5%) knew that diabetes causes foot problems. There was a significant association between the cause of diabetes with income and educational status ( < 0.05) and diabetic complications with age, education, and family income ( < 0.05). Conclusion. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness and additional education regarding hyperglycemia among the general community in the state of Telangana, India, to reduce the incidence of diabetes and associated risk factors. Public health campaigns that encourage healthier lifestyles might help achieve this aim.