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Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study in Southern China
Objective. To explore the associations between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke by evaluating the clinical risk factors, characteristics, and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with and without type 2 DM. Methods. A total of 1,156 AIS patients (including 410 with type 2 DM (AIS-DM group)) and 746 without type 2 DM (AIS-NDM group)) were included. Patients’ demographics, auxiliary examinations, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results. Among the included AIS patients, 35.46% had type 2 DM. The AIS-DM group had less males (59.76% versus 70.64%), less smokers (33.90% versus 41.96%), more patients with hypertension (72.93% versus 63.94%; ), higher triglyceride levels (42.93% versus 25.08%; ), and lower total cholesterol (147.06 mg/dl versus 175.31 mg/dl) than the AIS-NDM group. The proportion of patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in the AIS-DM group was lower (77.56% versus 85.92%; ) than that in the AIS-NDM group, and the proportion of patients with small arterial occlusions (SAO) in the AIS-DM group was higher (27.07% versus 13.67%; ) than that in the AIS-NDM group. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission in the AIS-DM group was lower than that in the AIS-NDM group (4.39 versus 5.00; ), but there was no significant difference in the NIHSS score or the modified Rankin Scale score between the two groups at discharge. A total of 85 AIS patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). The door-to-needle time (DNT) did not differ significantly between the groups (49.39 ± 30.40 min versus 44.25 ± 15.24 min; ). In addition, there were no significant differences in the baseline NIHSS score, 7-day NIHSS score, and mRS score at discharge between the groups. After intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA, the AIS-NDM group had better recovery (44.30% versus 29.20%; ) and a higher ratio of good treatment outcome at discharge (65.60% versus 54.20%; ). Conclusions. Type 2 DM is associated with AIS and its risk factors, such as dyslipidemia and hypertension. Patients in the AIS-DM group had less LAA and smaller arterial occlusions, and DM could exacerbate the short-term clinical outcomes in AIS patients.
Early Onset Age Increased the Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Duration of 10–20 Years and HbA1C ≥7%: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study
Background. The relationship between onset age of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is controversy and not concluded. Therefore, this hospital-based case-control study aimed to investigate the influence of diabetes onset age on the development of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), independent of diabetic duration and HbA1c levels. Methods. A sample of 780 T2D patients with diabetic duration of 10–20 years and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7% were enrolled in the study. 338 T2D patients with onset age ≤45 years were further selected as cases (early onset) and 79 with onset age ≥ 55 years were chosen as controls (elderly onset). International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale was applied to estimate the severity of DR. Results. The prevalence of DR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was notably increased in the early onset group. When stratified by duration of diabetes, the impact of younger age on the risk of DR turned to be greatest in patients with diabetic duration ≥15 years (OR = 5.202, 95% CI 2.625–10.310). In groups stratified by HbA1c, the risk of DR was highest in patients with younger onset age and HbA1c ≥ 9% (OR = 3.889, 95% CI 1.852–8.167). Compared with the elderly onset group, the risk of DR (OR = 1.776, 95% CI = 1.326–2.380, < 0.001) and PDR (OR = 1.605, 95% CI = 1.106–2.329, = 0.013) in younger diagnosed patients was increased after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions. Age of onset was an independent risk factor for developing DR and PDR. This suggests that it is urgent to closely monitor and treat the metabolic disorders in younger T2D patients to delay the occurrence and progression of DR.
Comparison of Clinical Features between Primary Aldosteronism and Essential Hypertension in Chinese Patients: A Case-Control Study
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is one of the most common forms of secondary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that, compared with essential hypertension (EH), PA presents more severe disorders of glycolipid metabolism and organ damages. This case-control retrospective study aimed to ascertain clinical features and metabolic parameters between Chinese patients of PA and EH. 174 PA patients and 174 matched EH patients were recruited. Their clinical features, biochemistry parameters, the ventricular septal thickness, and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were compared. HOMA-β% and HOMA-IR were calculated to evaluate glucose metabolism. The results showed that there was no significant difference regarding BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure between the two groups. The blood potassium level was significantly lower in PA patients than those in EH patients. The abnormal glucose tolerance and the incidence of diabetes in the PA group were not significantly different from those in EH group, but the insulin secretion levels at 0 min and 30 min were significantly weaker than those in the EH group, and the HOMA-β% was also lower in the PA group than those in the EH group. Left ventricular structural abnormalities in PA patients were more severe than those in EH patients. Subtype analysis indicated that patient with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) has more serious hypokalemia and lower levels of HOMA-β% and HOMA-IR comparing to those in the idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA) patient. These findings demonstrated that PA patients showed more impaired insulin secretion function and more severe left ventricular structural damage compared with EH patients.
Association between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. This study aimed to explore the association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I ratio (HDL-C/apo A-I) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. A total of 9025 Chinese adults were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, who presented their annual health checkups at Zhenhai Lianhua Hospital, Ningbo, during 2017. Results. The NAFLD prevalence was 33.7%, and HDL-C/apo A-I was significantly decreased in NAFLD patients, as well as in lean NAFLD and in patients with NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis (all ). The prevalence of NAFLD and components of metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with HDL-C/apo A-I (). Multivariate logistic regression analysis show that HDL-C/apo A-I is inversely associated with the risk of NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.353, 95% confidence interval: 0.257–0.486; ). Conclusions. Our results suggested that increased HDL-C/apo A-I is significantly associated with a decreased risk of NAFLD.
Primary and Secondary Hypogonadism in Male Persons with Diabetes Mellitus
Aims. To characterize hypogonadism in male persons with diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods. 184 consecutive male persons with diabetes were studied. Besides the usual care, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), FSH, and LH were measured in the last appointment and in 40 patients, also in the next two appointments. Statistical analysis compared groups and explored factors for TT and LH levels. Results. TT levels were stable and highly correlated (r > 0.750, ) over a 6–12-month period. 20% of the patients presented secondary hypogonadism (SH) and 18% presented primary hypogonadism (PH). SH was inversely related to HbA1 (partial r (rp) = 0.229, ), while PH was directly related to age (r = 0.356, ). TT levels were reduced independently by metformin (364 ± 160 vs. 431 ± 242 ng/dL, t = 2.241, ) and statins (359 ± 156 vs. 424 ± 230 ng/dl, t = 2.224, ). TT levels were inversely related to microvascular disease (rp = −0.169, ). Discussion. TT levels were stable over time and hypogonadism was common. SH, generally clinically, is related to the diabetic state, while PH, generally subclinically, is an age-dependent process unrelated to diabetes. Low TT levels were related to older age, poor metabolic control, metformin and statins use, and microvascular disease.
Influence of Rapid Urbanization on Thyroid Autoimmune Disease in China
Background. The prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), especially Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), has increased dramatically in China. Moreover, China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanization in the world. We intended to explore the relationship between rapid urbanization and HT. Methods. A total of 2946 subjects in Zhejiang Shangyu (SY) (n = 1546) and Jiangsu Nanjing (NJ) (n = 1400) were enrolled in this study. Serum TPOAb, TGAb, and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured, and ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed in all subjects. DNA was extracted from all subjects, and four SNPs were selected for genotyping. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to screen the best interaction between genetic factors and environment factors. Results. TPOAb and TGAb concentrations were higher in NJ than in SY (34.60 vs. 14.00 IU/ml and 21.05 vs. 7.50 IU/ml). People in NJ also had higher TPOAb and TGAb positivity rates than those in SY (7.8% vs. 12.7% and 8.7% vs. 16.3%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that rapid urbanization was an independent risk factor for TPOAb (OR = 1.473) and TGAb (OR = 1.689). Genotype TT in rs11675434 was associated with an increased risk of TPOAb positivity both in SY (OR = 2.955) and in NJ (OR = 1.819). GMDR analysis showed a two-locus model (SNP2 × urbanization) and a three-locus model (SNP2 × SNP3 × urbanization), which had testing accuracies of 56.88% and 57.25%, respectively ( values were 0.001 and 0.001). Conclusion. Rapid urbanization influences the incidence of TPOAb and TGAb positivity. We should pay more attention to thyroid autoimmune disease in areas of China experiencing rapid urbanization.