Adrenal (Pro)renin Receptor Expression and Serum Soluble (Pro)renin Receptor Concentration in Primary AldosteronismRead the full article
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Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients Uncontrolled on Metformin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Introduction. To conduct the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) for obese type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients uncontrolled on metformin. Methods. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid, and Web of Science from inception to May 14, 2020, without language restrictions for eligible RCTs. The primary outcome is the mean change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results. Totally, 3 RCTs enrolled 2066 patients were identified. Compared with SGLT-2is, treatment with GLP-1RAs achieved significant reduced HbA1c by 0.40% (95% CI: −0.54, −0.25; ), fasting blood glucose (FBG) by 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.31, −0.04; ), and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) by 0.32 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.49, −0.14; ) for obese T2D patients uncontrolled on metformin. The significant benefit of weight loss was seen in semaglutide (MD: −0.75; 95% CI: −1.18, −0.31; ). No significant difference was detected between GLP-1RAs and SGLT-2is in overall adverse events (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.09; ), but gastrointestinal events showed higher occurrence in GLP-1RAs groups compared with SGLT-2is (RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.93; ). Subgroup analyses revealed that follow-up time did not statistically influence glycemic control. Conclusion. GLP-1RAs are superior to SGLT-2is for obese T2D patients uncontrolled on metformin in glycemic control without an increase in adverse events except for a higher occurrence in gastrointestinal events. Future large longer-term follow-up clinical trials are needed to provide more evidence about the sustainable effects and safety of GLP-1RAs compared with SGLT-2is.
Circadian Profile of Salivary Melatonin Secretion in Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Purpose. In the present study, the salivary melatonin secretion in the hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) children was measured. The logit model was fitted to the data to obtain the salivary dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs), and the results were compared with the values estimated from the classic threshold method with a linear interpolation and those previously published for the blood measurements. Materials and Methods. 9 patients suffering from HIE aged from 65 to 80 months were included in the study. The melatonin levels were assessed by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The diurnal melatonin secretion was estimated using a nonlinear least squares method. Student’s t-test and the Mann–Whitney U test were used for the comparisons of the obtained parameters. Results. The circadian profiles of the melatonin secretion for both calculation methods do not differ statistically. The DLMO parameters obtained in the blood and saliva samples in children with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were similar.
Association between Diabetes Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective. This study aimed to explore the association between DM knowledge and self-efficacy in Chinese patients with T2DM. The influence factors for DM knowledge were explored, and evidence on interventions was provided to patients for information. Design. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in various hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from April 2017 to February 2019, by using multistage stratified randomized sampling. DM knowledge and self-efficacy were measured using the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl) and the General Self-efficacy (GSE) Scale. The relationship between the ADKnowl and the GSE scores was analyzed using the Spearman correlation analysis. Differences in the ADKnowl and GES scores among groups with different sociodemographic characteristics were computed; significant variables and GES scores were input in the multiple stepwise linear regression model to predict the influencing factors of ADKnowl scores. Results. A total of 1,512 eligible patients with T2DM were included in this study, and their mean ADKnowl score was 59.04 ± 16.24. The top score of the eight dimensions in the ADKnowl scale was reducing the complication risk by 71.01%. The mean GSE score was 2.42 ± 0.59. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the GSE score displayed a significantly positive correlation with DM knowledge at the ADKnowl scale (r = 0.172, ). The best fit multivariable linear regression analysis revealed eight variables that explained 37.6% of the variance of ADKnowl scores. They were diabetes-learning experience, educational background, complication, therapy, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes duration, marital status, and GSE (R2 = 0.376, F = 5.971, ). Conclusions. In Chinese patients with T2DM, the self-efficacy in managing DM positively influenced DM knowledge. DM knowledge, as a protective factor, conversely improved the efficiency of self-management for T2DM. Some ignored influence factors in previous studies can be showed by investigating and analyzing from two scales. Health educators and promoters should help in developing DM knowledge and self-efficacy.
Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy among Diabetic Patients in General Public Hospitals of Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018/19
Background. Diabetic nephropathy is real damage resulting from having uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Unmanaged diabetic nephropathy is one of the most leading causes of kidney failure. There is a scarcity of information on the determinants of diabetic nephropathy among diabetes mellitus patients in Ethiopia. Identification of the determinants can help devise a strategy to properly address the disease and its consequences. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the determinants of diabetic nephropathy among diabetes mellitus patients. Methods. Unmatched case-control study design with 168 cases and 672 controls with a mean age of 45.18 and 62.12, respectively, participated in the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection, and a systematic sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were entered into Epi data and exported to SPSS for data clarification and analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to check the level of association between diabetic nephropathy and the independent variables. Results. Comorbidity (AOR: 4.96 at 95 CI: 1.77–13.87), hypertension (AOR: 6.33, 95% CI: 2.51–16.02), poor glycemic control (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.31, 8.21), age (AOR: 1.14, 95%: 1.09–1.19), duration with diabetes mellitus since diagnosis (AOR: 1.83, 95 CI: 1.62–2.06), and nonadherence to diabetic medication (AOR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.15), diet (AOR: 5.96, 95%: 1.92–18.54), and exercise (AOR: 5.60, 95% CI: 1.94–16.21) were the determinants of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion. Adherence to medication, diet, and exercise should be empowered to achieve glycemic control and to prevent diabetic nephropathy. More attention has to be also given for old aged diabetic patients, long duration since diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other comorbidities.
Is There a Nonlinear Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Lipids in a Hypertensive Population with eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2? Findings from the China Hypertension Registry Study
Background. Evidence regarding the nonlinear relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and blood lipids in Chinese population with hypertension is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether there is a nonlinear association between SUA and lipids in Chinese hypertensive population with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2. Methods. A total of 13,355 hypertensive participants with eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2 were selected from the Chinese Hypertension Registry Study. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the linear relationship between SUA and lipids. Smooth curve fitting (penalized spline method) and threshold saturation effects were used to analyze the nonlinear association between SUA and lipids. Results. In the fully adjusted model, the results showed a positive correlation between SUA and TG (β = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) and LDL-C (β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.07), respectively. However, the relationship between SUA and HDL-C was nonlinear. The inflection point of SUA was 7.24 mg/dL. On the left side of the inflection point (<7.24 mg/dL), SUA was negatively associated with HDL-C (β = −0.02; 95% CI −0.02, −0.01). On the right side of the inflection point (≥7.24 mg/dL), SUA was not related to HDL-C (β = 0.01; 95% CI −0.01, 0.02). Conclusion. After adjusting for all covariates, SUA was positively associated with TG and LDL-C. The relationship between SUA and HDL-C was nonlinear. The negative correlation between SUA and HDL-C only existed when the SUA was less than 7.24 mg/dL in a hypertensive population with eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2.
Associations of Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Its Derivatives with Hyperuricemia Risk: A Cohort Study in Chinese General Population
Background. Identification and intervention of insulin resistance may be beneficial to the prevention of hyperuricemia (HUA) and its related diseases. Thus, we conducted this longitudinal study to examine the relation of triglyceride-glucose index (TyG), a simple noninsulin-based IR assessment tool, and its derivatives with the risk of HUA. Methods. A total of 42,387 adults who received routine health screening and were free of HUA were included for the longitudinal analyses. TyG, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) were calculated through anthropometric and biochemical indicators. Associations of TyG, TyG-BMI, TyG-WC, and TyG-WHtR with HUA risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Results. The incident cases of HUA occurred in 4,230 subjects during the 138,163 person-years of observation, and the crude incidence rate of HUA was 30.6 per 1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, we observed an increased risk for incident HUA for the upper TyG and its derivatives’ tercile. The HRs of TyG were greater than that of its components in both sexes. Compared with TyG, TyG-related parameters only had higher HRs in women but not in men. Conclusions. TyG and its integration with obesity indicators have the potential to help risk stratification and prevention of HUA, especially among women.