International Journal of Endocrinology / 2010 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Figure 2

Pathways involved in the hypothalamic control of the circadian rhythms of sleep, wakefulness and body temperature. In the regulation of circadian sleep-wake patterns, outputs from the SCN relay at the vSPZ, and project to the DMH. The DMH then sends outputs to the VLPO (a sleep-activating center), and the LHA (where orexin neurons target downstream wake-promoting sites). The SCN regulates circadian body temperature rhythms through a relay at the dSPZ, which projects to the MPO. SCN, suprachiasmatic nucleus; vSPZ: ventral subparaventricular zone; dSPZ: dorsal subparaventricular zone; DMH: dorsomedial nucleus; VLPO: ventrolateral preoptic nucleus; LHA: lateral hypothalamic area; MPO: medial preoptic nucleus; MCH: melanin-concentrating hormone; TRH: thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Modified with permission from [9].
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