International Journal of Endocrinology / 2010 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Table 2

The variation of hormonal rhythms across the menstrual cycle.

Authors [Reference]YearSample sizeFrequency of samplingHormones sampledMenstrual phases studiedSignificant effect of menstrual phaseSignificant effects in PMDD (versus NC)

Steiner et al. [57]1984 healthy2x/hour for 24-hoursplasma cortisolFPnonenone
PMSplasma PRLLP

Webley and Leidenberger [58]1986 healthy1x/4-hour for 24-hoursplasma melatoninFP melatonin during LPN/A
LP

Brun et al. [59]1987 healthy1x/nighturinary immunoreactive melatoninacross full cycle melatonin during LPN/A

Brzezinski et al. [60]1988 healthy1x/2-hour for 24-hoursPlasma melatonin plasma PRLearly-FPnoneN/A
ovulation
mid-LP

Berga and Yen [61]1990 healthy1x/hour in daytime 2x/hour in nighttimePlasma melatoninearly-FPnoneN/A
late-FP
mid-LP
late-LP

Parry et al. [62]1990 healthy PMS2x/hour for 27-hoursplasma melatoninearly-FPnone melatonin AUC melatonin duration melatonin phase-advanced
late-FP
mid-LP
late-LP

Ito et al. [47]1993 healthy1x/hour for 24-hoursplasma melatoninmensesnoneN/A
late-FP
early-LP
late-LP

Parry et al. [63]1994 healthy PMDD2x/hour for 27-hoursplasma cortisolmid-FPlate-LPIn healthy: cortisol phase-delayed in late- LP PRL amplitude at both phases PRL peak at both phases
plasma PRL plasma TSH

Cagnacci et al. [35]1996 healthy4x/hour for 24-hoursplasma melatoninFPmelatonin phase-delay during LPN/A
LP

Parry et al. [64]1996 healthy PMDD2x/hour for 27-hoursplasma TSH plasma PRLmid-FPlate-LPnone PRL peak at both phases TSH phase-advanced at both phases

Parry et al. [65]1997 healthy PMDD2x/hour for 27-hoursplasma melatoninmid-FPlate-LPIn PMDD: AUC, amplitude,  duration, delayed onset during late-LP AUC at both phases
mean levels at both phases

Bloch et al. [66]1998 healthy PMS1x/dayplasma cortisolearly-FPnonenone
mid-FP
late-FP
ovulation
early-LP
mid-FP
late-FP
Wright and Badia [67]1999 healthy1x/hour for 24-hourssalivary melatoninFPnoneN/A
LP

Shibui et al. [37]2000 healthy1x/hour for 24-hoursPlasma melatonin plasma cortisol plasma TSHFPLP melatonin AUC during LPN/A
cortisol amplitude during LP
TSH amplitude during LP
TSH phase-delay during LP

Parry et al. [68]2000 healthy2x/hour for 27-hoursplasma cortisolmid-FPIn healthy: cortisol phase-advanced in LPnone
PMDDlate-LP

PMS: premenstrual syndrome; PMDD: premenstrual dysphoric disorder; FP: follicular phase; LP: luteal phase; PRL, prolactin; TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone; AUC: area under the curve.

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