Figure 2: Schematic representation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signalling. Mechanisms of some growth factors modulate beta-cell replication through proliferation or apoptosis. These factors on one hand stimulate PI3K, AKT, MAPK, and increase beta-cell proliferation. On the other hand, stimulate AKT, FOXO1, and other proapoptotic molecules resulting in induction of apoptosis.