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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 793953, 12 pages
Review Article

Connecting the Lines between Hypogonadism and Atherosclerosis

1Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 36, Byblos, Lebanon
3Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon

Received 10 June 2011; Accepted 9 November 2011

Academic Editor: Stephen L. Atkin

Copyright © 2012 Akl C. Fahed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epidemiological studies show that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and point to gender differences with ageing males being at highest risk. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that has several risk factors and mediators. Hypogonadism is a commonly undiagnosed disease that has been associated with many of the events, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis. The mechanistic relations between testosterone levels, atherosclerotic events, and risk factors are poorly understood in many instances, but the links are clear. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors. We look into the different areas from which lessons could be learned, including epidemiological studies, animal and laboratory experiments, studies on androgen deprivation therapy patients, and studies on testosterone-treated patients. We finish by providing recommendations for the clinician and needs for future research.