- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 837187, 5 pages
Bone Demineralization in Postmenopausal Women: Role of Anamnestic Risk Factors
Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, Department of Medical and Pediatric Sciences,
University of Catania, Policlinico, 95123 Catania, Italy
Received 8 April 2012; Accepted 13 June 2012
Academic Editor: Ajai Kumar Srivastav
Copyright © 2012 Sandro La Vignera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. Garnero, E. Hausherr, M. C. Chapuy et al., “Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS prospective study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1531–1538, 1996.
- L. Mosekilde, F. Melsen, J. P. Bagger, O. Myhere-Jensen, and N. S. Sorensen, “Bone changes in hyperthyroidism: interrelationships between bone morphometry. Thyroid function and calcium phosphorus metabolism,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 515–525, 1977.
- J. Foldes and P. Lakatos, “Thyroid and osteoporosis,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 23, pp. 690–692, 1996.
- L. Mosekilde, E. F. Eriksen, and P. Charles, “Effects of thyroid hormones on bone and mineral metabolism,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 35–63, 1990.
- R. D. Harvey, K. C. McHardy, I. W. Reid et al., “Measurement of bone collagen degradation in hyperthyroidism and during thyroxine replacement therapy using pyridinium cross-links as specific urinary markers,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1189–1194, 1991.
- S. L. Greenspan and F. S. Greenspan, “The effect of thyroid hormone on skeletal integrity,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 750–758, 1999.
- P. Vestergaard and L. Mosekilde, “Hyperthyroidism, bone mineral, fracture risk—a meta-analysis,” Thyroid, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 585–593, 2003.
- L. Wartofski, “Osteoporosis: a growing concern for the thyroidologist,” Thyroid Today, vol. 11, pp. 1–11, 1988.
- D. T. Baran and L. E. Braverman, “Thyroid hormones and bone mass,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1182–1183, 1991.
- K. Zatońska and M. Bolanowski, “The influence of thyrotoxicosis and thyroxine therapy on the risk of osteoporosis,” Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski, vol. 8, no. 47, pp. 356–359, 2000.
- Z. E. Belaya, G. A. Melnichenko, L. Y. Rozhinskaya et al., “Subclinical hyperthyroidism of variable etiology and its influence on bone in postmenopausal women,” Hormones, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2007.
- P. Affinito, C. Sorrentino, M. J. Farace et al., “Effects of thyroxine therapy on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with hypothyroidism,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 843–848, 1996.
- M. Baldini, M. Gallazzi, A. Orsatti, S. Fossati, P. Leonardi, and L. Cantalamessa, “Treatment of benign nodular goitre with mildly suppressive doses of L-thyroxine: effects on bone mineral density and on nodule size,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 251, no. 5, pp. 407–414, 2002.
- C. H. Chen, J. F. Chen, B. Y. Yang et al., “Bone mineral density in women receiving thyroxine suppressive therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 442–447, 2004.
- J. Foldes, G. Tarjan, M. Szathmari, F. Varga, I. Krasznai, and C. Horvath, “Bone mineral density in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: is this thyroid status a risk factor for osteoporosis?” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 521–527, 1993.
- G. Gorres, A. Kaim, A. Otte, M. Gotze, and J. Muller-Brand, “Bone mineral density in patients receiving suppressive doses of thyroxine for differentiated thyroid carcinoma,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 690–692, 1996.
- P. Hadji, O. Hars, G. Sturm, T. Bauer, G. Emons, and K. D. Schulz, “The effect of long-term, non-suppressive levothyroxine treatment on quantitative ultrasonometry of bone in women,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 445–450, 2000.
- A. C. Heijckmann, M. S. P. Huijberts, P. Geusens, J. de Vries, P. P. Menheere, and B. H. Wolffenbuttel, “Hip bone mineral density, bone turnover and risk of fracture in patients on long-term suppressive L-thyroxine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2005.
- A. W. Kung and S. S. Yeung, “Prevention of bone loss induced by thyroxine suppressive therapy in postmenopausal women: the effect of calcium and calcitonin,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 1232–1236, 1996.
- B. Larijani, F. Gharibdoost, M. Pajouhi et al., “Effects of levothyroxine suppressive therapy on bone mineral density in premenopausal women,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2004.
- P. Mikosch, B. Jauk, H. J. Gallowitsch, W. Pipam, E. Kresnik, and P. Lind, “Suppressive levothyroxine therapy has no significant influence on bone degradation in women with thyroid carcinoma: a comparison with other disorders affecting bone metabolism,” Thyroid, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 257–263, 2001.
- V. Nuzzo, G. Lupoli, A. del Puente et al., “Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 333–337, 1998.
- S. Sijanovic and I. Karner, “Bone loss in premenopausal women on long-term suppressive therapy with thyroid hormone,” Medscape Women's Health, vol. 6, no. 5, p. 3, 2001.
- J. Toivonen, R. Tähtelä, K. Laitinen, J. Risteli, and M. J. Välimaki, “Markers of bone turnover in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and following withdrawal of thyroxine suppressive therapy,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 667–673, 1998.
- E. Jodar, M. Munoz-Torres, F. Escobar-Jimenez, M. Quesada-Charneco, and J. D. Luna Del Castillo, “Bone loss in hyperthyroid patients and in former hyperthyroid patients controlled on medical therapy: influence of aetiology and menopause,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 279–285, 1997.
- B. Uzzan, J. Campos, M. Cucherat, P. Nony, J. P. Boissel, and G. Y. Perret, “Effects on bone mass of long term treatment with thyroid hormones: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 4278–4289, 1996.
- H. Gharib and E. L. Mazzaferri, “Thyroxine suppressive therapy in patients with nodular thyroid disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 386–394, 1998.
- S. La Vignera, E. Vicari, S. Tumino et al., “L-thyroxin treatment and postmenopausal osteoporosis: relevance of the risk profile present in clinical history,” Minerva Ginecologica, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 475–484, 2008.