Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013, Article ID 107869, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/107869
Research Article

Hormonal Modulation in Aging Patients with Erectile Dysfunction and Metabolic Syndrome

1Faculty of Medicine, Universidade do Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
2Department of Urology, São João Central Hospital, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
3School of Health Sciences, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
4Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade do Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
5Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Universidade do Porto (IBMC), Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
6Faculty of Biotechnology, Catholic University of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 400, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal

Received 5 July 2013; Revised 20 August 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editor: Antonio Aversa

Copyright © 2013 Inês Campos Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. B. McKinlay, W. Wilson, S. Sharlip, M. Montague, M. Melman, and B. Broderick, “The worldwide prevalence and epidemiology of erectile dysfunction,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 12, supplement 4, pp. S6–S11, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. A. Aytaç, J. B. McKinlay, and R. J. Krane, “The likely worldwide increase in erectile dysfunction between 1995 and 2025 and some possible policy consequences,” BJU International, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. S. Vendeira, N. M. Pereira, N. Tomada, and J. M. LaFuente, “Estudo EPISEX-PT/Masculino: prevalência das disfunções sexuais masculinas em Portugal,” Cadernos de Sexologia, no. 4, pp. 15–22, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. W. Zohdy, E. E. Kamal, and Y. Ibrahim, “Androgen deficiency and abnormal penile duplex parameters in obese men with erectile dysfunction,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 797–808, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)., “Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 25, pp. 3143–3421, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Tomada, I. Tomada, F. Botelho, F. Cruz, and P. Vendeira, “Are all metabolic syndrome components responsible for penile hemodynamics impairment in patients with erectile dysfunction? The role of body fat mass assessment,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 831–839, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Hu, Q. Qiao, J. Tuomilehto, B. Balkau, K. Borch-Johnsen, and K. Pyorala, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 10, pp. 1066–1076, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Srilatha and P. G. Adaikan, “Endocrine milieu and erectile dysfunction: is oestradiol-testosterone imbalance, a risk factor in the elderly?” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 569–573, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Corona, E. Mannucci, G. Forti, and M. Maggi, “Hypogonadism, ED, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a pathological link supporting cardiovascular diseases,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 587–598, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Corona, G. Forti, and M. Maggi, “Why can patients with erectile dysfunction be considered lucky? The association with testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome,” Aging Male, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 193–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Kupelian, S. T. Page, A. B. Araujo, T. G. Travison, W. J. Bremner, and J. B. McKinlay, “Low sex hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, and symptomatic androgen deficiency are associated with development of the metabolic syndrome in nonobese men,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 843–850, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. M. Miner and R. Sadovsky, “Evolving issues in male hypogonadism: evaluation, management, and related comorbidities,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 74, supplement 3, pp. S38–S46, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. M. Miner and A. D. Seftel, “Testosterone and ageing: what have we learned since the Institute of Medicine report and what lies ahead?” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 622–632, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Rodriguez, D. C. Muller, E. J. Metter et al., “Aging, androgens, and the metabolic syndrome in a longitudinal study of aging,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 3568–3572, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. M. Traish, A. Guay, R. Feeley, and F. Saad, “The dark side of testosterone deficiency: I. metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Andrology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 10–22, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Corona, E. Mannucci, V. Ricca et al., “The age-related decline of testosterone is associated with different specific symptoms and signs in patients with sexual dysfunction,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 720–728, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. C. Wu, A. Tajar, J. M. Beynon et al., “Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 123–135, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. A. Feldman, C. Longcope, C. A. Derby et al., “Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 589–598, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. C. W. Wu, A. Tajar, S. R. Pye et al., “Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European male aging study,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 2737–2745, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Mancini, D. Milardi, A. Bianchi, V. Summaria, and L. de Marinis, “Increased estradiol levels in venous occlusive disorder: a possible functional mechanism of venous leakage,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 239–242, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Corona, F. C. Wu, G. Forti et al., “Thyroid hormones and male sexual function,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 668–679, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Maggi, J. Buvat, G. Corona, A. Guay, and L. O. Torres, “Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA),” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 661–677, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. R. Nikoobakht, M. Aloosh, N. Nikoobakht, A. Mehrsay, F. Biniaz, and M. A. Karjalian, “The role of hypothyroidism in male infertility and erectile dysfunction,” Urology Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 405–409, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Corona, E. Mannucci, A. D. Fisher et al., “Effect of hyperprolactinemia in male patients consulting for sexual dysfunction,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 1485–1493, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Wang, E. Nieschlag, R. Swerdloff et al., “ISA, ISSAM, EAU, EAA and ASA recommendations: investigation, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. Montorsi, A. Briganti, A. Salonia et al., “Erectile dysfunction prevalence, time of onset and association with risk factors in 300 consecutive patients with acute chest pain and angiographically documented coronary artery disease,” European Urology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Corona, G. Rastrelli, L. Vignozzi, E. Mannucci, and M. Maggi, “Testosterone, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 337–353, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Buvat, R. Shabsigh, A. Guay et al., “Hormones, metabolism, aging, and men's health,” in Standard Practice in Sexual Medicine, H. Porst, J. Buvat, and The Standards Committee of the International Society for Sexual Medicine, Eds., pp. 225–2286, Blackwell Publishing Company, London, UK, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Jackson, P. Montorsi, M. A. Adams et al., “Cardiovascular aspects of sexual medicine,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, part 2, pp. 1608–1626, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Blouin, J.-P. Després, C. Couillard et al., “Contribution of age and declining androgen levels to features of the metabolic syndrome in men,” Metabolism, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1034–1040, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Corona, E. Mannucci, A. D. Fisher et al., “Low levels of androgens in men with erectile dysfunction and obesity,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2454–2463, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. G. Cohen, “The role of estradiol in the maintenance of secondary hypogonadism in males in erectile dysfunction,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 331–333, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Aversa, M. Caprio, A. Antelmi et al., “Exposure to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors stimulates aromatase expression in human adipocytes in vitro,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 696–704, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. A. Greco, M. Pili, R. Bruzziches, G. Corona, G. Spera, and A. Aversa, “Testosterone: estradiol ratio changes associated with long-term tadalafil administration: a pilot study,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 716–722, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus