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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 197519, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Association between Osteocalcin, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Role of Total and Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

1Obesity Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925 (98), Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925 (38), Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA

Received 5 December 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 13 March 2013

Academic Editor: Mario Maggi

Copyright © 2013 Assim A. Alfadda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Studies have demonstrated that total osteocalcin (TOC) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore might influence the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC) regulates insulin secretion and sensitivity in mice, but its relation to MetS in humans is unclear. We aimed to determine whether uOC is related to MetS and/or its individual components and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and whether TOC and uOC have utility in predicting the cardiovascular risk. We studied 203 T2DM patients with and without MetS. MetS was defined based on the NCEP-ATP III criteria. A correlation analysis was performed between the three outcome variables: (i) TOC, (ii) uOC, and (iii) carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and MetS components and other cardiovascular risk factors. Both TOC and uOC were significantly lower in patients with MetS compared to those without MetS, independent of body mass index. In patients with MetS, uOC was significantly and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol, while TOC was significantly and negatively correlated with serum triglycerides. We report for the first time that uOC is related to lipid indices in patients with T2DM. Further studies are necessary to determine whether uOC can be utilized for cardiovascular risk assessments in these patients.