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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013, Article ID 303859, 5 pages
Research Article

Cardiovascular Risk Profiles amongst Women in a Multiethnic Population in Inner City Britain: A Potential Impact of Anaemia

1University of Birmingham, Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH and Sandwell Medical Research Unit, Sandwell General Hospital, West Bromwich, West Midlands B71 4HJ, UK
2Primary Care Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
4Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent, UK
6Department of Psychiatry, Derby City General Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby DE22 3NE, UK

Received 24 September 2012; Revised 20 December 2012; Accepted 7 January 2013

Academic Editor: Faustino R. Pérez-López

Copyright © 2013 Julia Chackathayil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The risk of diabetes is markedly reduced in men with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The nature of this relationship in women is not clear, nor is there information about the influence of ethnicity, given the increased susceptibility of diabetes amongst South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans. We reviewed 3563 patients with a diagnosis of anaemia from 2000 to 2007. The age-adjusted prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA was calculated, together with cardiovascular comorbidities amongst Caucasians, South Asians, and Afro-Caribbeans. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (women only) or IDA was markedly higher in South Asians compared to Caucasians and Afro-Caribbeans. Among women with IDA, diabetes was more prevalent among South Asians (45%, 95% CI 39.0–51.0) compared to Caucasians (3.0%, 2.1–4.0); . Among South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency, the prevalence of diabetes was reduced 8.5% (5.2–12.0). South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency had a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), but this relationship was reversed in IDA. IDA is associated with a greater prevalence of diabetes in South Asian women, but it is not coordinated by a greater risk of macrovascular complications. Given the cardiovascular impact of diabetes in South Asians, this association merits further study in relation to its pathophysiological implication.