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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013, Article ID 501015, 11 pages
Review Article

Fish and Marine Omega-3 Polyunsatured Fatty Acid Consumption and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiology Axis of the Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (Hôpital Laval), Québec, QC, Canada G1V 4G2
2The Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 4G2

Received 22 June 2013; Accepted 9 August 2013

Academic Editor: Ilias Migdalis

Copyright © 2013 Ming Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To examine the association between fish and marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in prospective cohort studies. Methods. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) using random effects or fixed effects generic inverse variance model. Publication bias and study heterogeneity were assessed using Egger’s test and I2 statistic. Results. We found no significant association between the intake of fish/seafood (pooled RR: 1.04; , 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.2, 549, 955 participants) or marine LC n-3 PUFA (pooled RR: 1.08, , 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.30, 346, 710 participants) and T2D risk. Significant study heterogeneity was observed in fish/seafood and marine LC n-3 PUFA studies ( ). Subgroup analysis revealed no obvious sources for high heterogeneity. We also found a significant protective effect of oily fish intake on T2D risk (pooled RR = 0.89, , 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.96). Dose-response analysis suggested that every 80 g per day intake of oily fish may reduce 20% risk of T2D. Conclusion. We found no significant effect of fish/seafood or marine LC n-3 PUFA intake on risk of T2D but a significant effect of oily fish intake on risk of T2D.