Figure 3: Examples of interaction between xenoestrogens and estrogen signaling pathways. (a) Some xenoestrogens, such as tributyltins, can inhibit aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens in estrogens, resulting in the perturbation of the androgen/estrogen balance. (b) Other groups of compounds can interfere with estrogenic signaling by competing with natural estrogens for binding to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), resulting in defects in E2 plasma transport. ((c) and (d)) Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ERE-dependent E2-target gene transcription. (c) Some PAH metabolites can bind ER, resulting in the recruitment of ERs at the ERE and, subsequently, in the recruitment of coregulators that modulate the expression of E2 target genes. (d) Some PAH metabolites or dioxin are also capable of binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), resulting in heterodimerization with aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (Arnt). This transcriptionally active complex can then interact with ligand-unbound ER at the ERE site and modulate E2 target gene expression.