Figure 2: Schematic model illustrating the possible mechanisms of phytoestrogen action (the abbreviations on the figure stand for: AHR—aryl hydrocarbon receptor; ARNT—AHR nuclear translocator; ER—estrogen receptor; ERE—estrogen response element; cAMP—cyclic adenosine monophosphate; Ca2+—calcium ions; GPER/GPR30—G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1; MAPK/ERK—mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases; NF-κB—nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; PI3 K—phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases; PPAR—peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor; RXR—retinoid X receptor).