International Journal of Endocrinology / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Diabetes Mellitus in Mainland China from 1979 to 2012

Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies.

First author and survey yearStudy locationSurvey dateSurvey level Age rangeSampling methodLocationDiagnostic criteriaDiagnosis methodTotal sample size (male/female)Total case size (male/female)Prevalence (%)Awareness (%)Treatment (%)Control (%)

Sha 1980 [29]Shanghai1978~1979Provincial0~89NAUrban/ruralNAUrine glucose/FPG/
OGTT
101624 (40664/51960)1028 (523/505)1.01 (0.95~1.07)
Zhong 1979 [34]ChinaOct. 1979NationalAll ageCluster samplingUrban/ruralThe Lanzhou conference on diabetesOGTT304537 (160195/144342)1854 (1009/845)0.61 (0.58~0.64)
Xiang 1989 [36]Shanxi/
Beijing/
Liaoning
1989Provincial20~General surveyUrban/ruralWHO1988OGTT 44747 (27938/16809)1181 (808/373)2.64 (2.49~2.79)
Pan 1994 [32]ChinaApr. 1994National25~64General surveyUrban/ruralWHO1985OGTT21351548642.28 (2.21~2.34)
Xu 1994 [31]Yunnan1994Provincial15~Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralNAOGTT4252 (1963/2289)97 (41/56)2.28 (1.83~2.73)
Liu 1995 [35]Ningxia1995Provincial35~Stratified random cluster samplingUrbanBG ≥ 7.2 mmol/L/history of diabetesFPG2039 (1092/947)77 (34/43)3.78 (2.95~4.60)
Wang 1995 [39]HubeiJuly. 1994~Mar. 1995Provincial25~70Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1985OGTT9450 (4790/4660)248 (137/111)2.62 (2.30~2.95)
Yang 1995 [33]AnhuiSept. 1994~Aug. 1995Provincial15~80Stratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1985OGTT10991 (6132/4859)246 (150/96)2.24 (1.96~2.51)
Zhang 1995 [34]Fujian1995Provincial15~NAUrban/ruralBG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L OGTT4075832.04 (1.60~2.47)
Xiang 1996 [36]China1995~1996National20~75Stratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1985FPG4275115483.62 (3.44~3.80)
Zhao 1996 [38]Shandong1994~1996Provincial0~99Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/rural/otherWHOOGTT202282211.09 (0.95~1.24)
Liu 1997 [42]HebeiFeb.~June. 1997Provincial20~74Stratified random samplingUrban/ruralWHO1985FPG5975 (2771/3204)287 (117/170)4.80 (4.26~5.35)
Zhang 1997 [37]HebeiNov. 1996~Feb. 1997Provincial20~74Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralNAFPG/OGTT2762 (1207/1555)77 (30/47)2.79 (2.17~3.40)
Sheng 1998 [40]Shanghai1998Provincial30~79General surveyUrbanADA1997/
WHO1985
FPG/OGTT9376 (4096/4307)299 (168/131)3.19 (2.83~3.54)62.54 (57.06~68.03)
Wang 1998 [41]Guangdong1997~1998Provincial20~74Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1985OGTT11742 (5450/6292)414 (200/214)3.53 (3.19~3.86)
Hu 2001 [21]China2000~2001National35~74A four-stage stratified sampling random cluster methodUrban/ruralADA1997FPG15236 (7368/7868)986 (489/497)6.47 (6.08~6.86)28.50 (25.68~31.32)24.75 (22.05~27.44)9.43 (7.61~11.26)
Gu 2002 [43]ShanghaiAug. 2001~Jan. 2002Provincial15~Multistage-stratified cluster samplingUrbanNANA7563 (3691/3872)131 (53/78)1.73 (1.44~2.03)
Wang 2002 [46]ChinaAug.~Dec. 2002National18~Multistage-stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1995FPG/OGTT52416 (24428/27988)1364 (620/744)2.60 (2.47~2.74)
Hu 2003 [47]Zhejiang2003ProvincialAll ageMultistage-stratified random cluster samplingNANANA21666 (10896/10770)1410.65 (0.54~0.76)
Li 2003a [45]Sichuan2003ProvincialAll ageStratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralNANA12714 (6403/6311)3202.52 (2.24~2.79)
Li 2003b [49]Shanghai2003Provincial15~A four-stage stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999OGTT11589 (4621/6968)1000 (412/588)8.63 (8.12~9.14)
Ma 2003 [44]Qinghai2001~2003Provincial20~74Stratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralADA/
WHO1997
FPG/OGTT2276703.08 (2.37~3.78)
Zhang 2003 [62]Inner MongoliaJuly. 2002~Sept. 2003Provincial20~NARural ADA 2009FPG2563 (1050/1513)94 (41/53)3.67 (2.94~4.40)
Sun 2004 [48]HebeiSept.~Oct. 2004Provincial18~69Multistage stratified samplingUrban/ruralFPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L/
2 hBG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L/
previous diagnosis of diabetes
FPG/OGTT4196 (1731/2465)224 (94/130)5.34 (4.66~6.02)
Tian 2004 [59]Tianjin2004Provincial35~NARuralWHO1999FPG769792 (364781/405011)72803 (30277/42526)9.50 (9.43~9.57)
Zhao 2004 [52]Shandong2004Provincial20~74Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT5003 (2395/2608)419 (200/219)8.38 (7.61~9.14)
Qi 2005 [74]TianjinJune. 2005Provincial15~Multiphase stratified random cluster samplingNAADA1997/
Immunology of Diabetes Society criteria
FPG8109 (3878/4231)498 (299/199)6.14 (5.62~6.66)
Wei 2005 [71]Heilongjiang2005Provincial20~ Multistage random cluster samplingRuralWHO1999FPG/OGTT1058 (530/528)75 (38/37)7.09 (5.54~8.64)
Zhang 2005 [51]BeijingSept.~Nov. 2005Provincial18~Stratified multi-stage cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG16658 (6605/10053)10996.60 (6.22~6.97)56.69 (53.76~59.62)49.95 (47.00~52.91)15.01 (12.90~17.13)
Zhi 2005 [57]TianjinJune.~Sept. 2005Provincial15~74Multiphase stratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999/IDFFPG20741 (9986/10755)1259 (511/748)6.07 (5.75~6.40)
Li 2006 [50]Shanghai2006Provincial15~74Multistage cluster random samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999OGTT11589 (4621/6968)1000 (412/588)8.63 (8.12~9.14)
Xu 2006 [54]Beijing2001~2006Provincial45~NAUrban/ruralBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L/self-reported diabetes/a history of drug treatment for diabetesBlood biochemical analyses 3251 (1838/1413)38111.72 (10.61~12.83)
Zhang 2006 [61]Qinghai2006ProvincialNANAUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT4864 (2905/1959)2334.79 (4.19~5.39)
Zhao 2006 [63]ShanxiAug. 2005~Aug. 2006Provincial15~Random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999 FPG/OGTT12111 (5324/6787)638 (309/329)5.27 (4.87~5.67)
Cheng 2007 [56]ShanghaiMar. 2007Provincial18~Random samplingUrban/ruralNANA2320 (980/1340)215 (91/124)9.27 (8.09~10.45)
Dai 2007 [65]Jiangsu2007Provincial18~A four-stage stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHOFPG11833 (5210/6623)609 (271/338)5.10 (4.70~5.50)
Jin 2007 [66]BeijingSept.~Nov. 2007Provincial20~Random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT3484 (1390/2094)510 (238/272)14.64 (13.46~15.81)
Lv 2007 [22]Jiangsu2007Provincial15~69 Multistage random cluster samplingUrban/ruralNAFPG4318 (2007/2311)363 (153/210)8.41 (7.58~9.23)33.06 (28.22~37.90)27.27 (22.69~31.85)9.09 (6.13~12.05)
Wang 2007 [60]Guangdong2006~2007Provincial20~A four-stage sampling method Urban/ruralWHO1999OGTT6033 (1930/4103)639 (229/410)10.59 (9.82~11.37)
Wei 2007 [70]BeijingJune.~Sept. 2007Provincial20~Stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT5465106019.40 (18.35~20.44)
Yu 2007 [55]Shandong2007Provincial25~Multistage-stratified random samplingRuralWHO1999FPG/OGTT16341 (6992/9349)697 (289/408)4.27 (3.40~4.58)
Zhan 2007 [79]BeijingMay.~Aug. 2007Provincial20~ Multistage random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG10054 (3687/6367)1105 (408/697)10.99 (10.38~11.60)59.28 (56.38~62.17)55.20 (52.27~58.14)32.22 (29.46~34.97)
Chen 2008a [64]Shanghai2007~2008Provincial40~Multistage-stratified random samplingUrbanNAFPG619 (230/389)11318.26 (15.21~21.30)
Chen 2008b [67]HeilongjiangSept. 2007~Mar. 2008Provincial20~74 Multistage stratified cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT3058 (1219/1839)265 (135/130)8.67 (7.67~9.66)
Fan 2008 [53]ZhejiangNAProvincial35~Multistage-stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralNAFPG6902 (2620/4282)401 (162/239)5.81 (5.26~6.36)50.37 (45.48~55.27)49.38 (44.48~54.27)24.19 (20.00~28.38)
Li 2008 [68]GuangdongJan. 2007~Dec. 2008ProvincialAll age Stratified cluster samplingUrban/rural NCEP-ATP III 2005 criteriaFPG1206 (875/331)52 (40/12)4.31 (3.17~5.46)
Lin 2008 [58]FujianJuly. 2007~May. 2008Provincial20~74Multistage-stratified samplingUrban/ruralIDF 2005FPG/OGTT3208 (1250/1958)305 (126/179)9.51 (8.49~10.52)
Su 2008 [69]BeijingSept. 2008ProvincialNAMultistage-stratified and systematic random cluster samplingUrbanNANA1511 (504/1007)315 (112/203)20.85 (18.80~22.90)35.87 (30.58~41.17)
Yang 2008 [72]ChinaJune. 2007~May. 2008National20~Multistage stratified samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999OGTT46239 (18419/27820)4372 (1952/2420)9.70 (9.43~9.97)
Li 2009 [77]Shanghai2009Provincial35~74NAUrban/ruralADA 2009 FPG/OGTT7423 (3461/3962)1158 (601/557)15.60 (14.77~16.43)
Le 2010 [73]Yunnan2008~2010Provincial18~ Four-stage stratified random sampling Urban/ruralFBG was 7.0 mmol/L/using antidiabetic medications/previous diagnosis of diabetesFPG10007 (4628/5379)657 (260/397)6.57 (6.08~7.05)29.38 (25.89~)23.44 (20.20~26.68)
Yang 2010 [23]Xinjiang2007~2010Provincial35~Stratified sampling methodUrban/ruralADA 2009 FPG14122 (6539/7583)948 (506/442)6.71 (6.30~7.13)43.35 (40.20~46.51)17.72 (15.29~20.15)6.86 (5.25~8.47)
Ye 2010 [75]ZhejiangJuly.~Nov. 2010Provincial18~Multiphase stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT17437 (8169/9268)1529 (683/846)8.77 (8.35~9.19)59.19 (56.73~61.65)
CDC 2011 [28]31provinces2011National18~Multiphase stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralNAFPG/OGTT96941 (44353/52588)9403 (4524/4733)9.70 (9.51~9.89)36.10 (35.13~37.07)92.50 (91.97~93.03)34.70 (33.74~35.66)
Chen 2011 [76]ShandongJuly.~Sept. 2011Provincial18~69Multiphase stratified random cluster samplingUrban/ruralWHO1999FPG/OGTT15262 (7643/7619)941 (499/442)6.17 (5.78~6.55)
Liu 2012 [78]NingxiaNAProvincialNAMultistage random cluster samplingNAWHO1997NA3001 (1418/1583)762.53 (1.97~3.09)

NA: not available; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test; BG: blood glucose concentration; WHO: World Health Organization; ADA: American Diabetes Association; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; NCEP-ATP: National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel.

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