Table 1: Effect of GH administration on osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

AuthorsSubjects and clinical conditionsAge
years
Dose
 mg/kg/day 
DurationBFBRBMDSide effect

Kruse and Kuhlencordt, 1975 [241]3 MO58, 36, 451.45 to 2.3 mg/day8 to 15 months New periosteal bone formation and osteoblasts significantly increasedFluid retention and carpal tunnel syndrome

Brixen et al., 1990 [242]20 M 
healthy
 0.06 7 days BMC got significantly higherNone

Rudman et al., 1990 [243]12 M 
healthy
times/week6 monthsIncrease in lumbar vertebral BMD and in lean body massNone

Marcus et al.,1990 [260]16 M and W600.03, 0.06, or 0.127 days PTH and osteocalcin increasedImpaired oral glucose tolerance

Clemmesen et al., 1993 [246]42 PMO 7.2 mg/week12 week Bone mass decreasedNone

Kassem et al., 1994 [247]30 PMO 0.0673 days Significantly increased serums IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4None

Holloway et al., 1994 [244] 19 W 
healthy
0.026 months No significant changes at the lumbar spine and femoral neck Fluid retention and carpal tunnel syndrome

Brixen et al., 1995 [128] 40 PMO52–73 0.015–0.03–0.067 days Dose-dependent stimulation of bone formation and bone resorptionNone

Erdtsieck et al., 1995 [248]21 PMO 0.020 3 times/week + pamidronate1 year Blunted the pamidronate induced accumulation of bone mineral mass and the reduction of bone turnoverNone

Johansson et al., 1996 [257]12 MIO 0.60 mg/m2 or
IGF-I (80 micrograms/kg)
7 days IGF-I enhanced formation of collagen type I more than GH didNone

Bianda, 1997 [261] 7 M 
healthy
3.635 days Bone turnover and free calcitriol index increasedNone

Holloway et al., 1997 [249]84 PMO 0.020 (7 days followed by 5 days of calcitonin 100 U)2 years 
days cycles
Significant increases of BMD at lumbar spine and hip in the combined GH + CT and GH + placeboNone

Kassem et al., 1998 [250]40 PMO52–73 0.015–0.03–0.67 days Significantly increased serums IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4None

Sugimoto et al., 1999 [251] 8 F71 ± 3.40.038/kg/week
followed by
0.075/kg/week
4 weeks
48 weeks
Increases in radial and lumbar BMD, 
effect after discontinuation of GH treatment
None

Sääf et al., 1999 [252] 12 PMO 0,015 and reduced to 50%1 yearNo changeNo changeDecreased BMD at femoral neck None

Sugimoto et al., 2002 [253] 8 PMO 0.005448 weeks Radial BMD significantly increased after discontinuation of GH treatmentNone

Gillberg et al., 2002 [254] 29 M IO 0.3612 months Increased BMD and BMC sustained for at least 1 yr after treatment
None

Landin-Wilhelmsen et al., 2003 [255] 80 PMO50–700.30 or 0.75 mg/day 
+ estrogen
3 years BMC increased 14%None

Joseph et al., 2008 [256]14 PMO 0.2 mg/d × 4 wk increments of 0.1 mg/d every 2 wk12 months Net, increase in BMD, and sensitivity to PTH restoredNone

M = men, W = women, PMO = postmenopausal osteoporosis, MIO = men with idiopatic osteoporosis, BF = bone formation, BR = bone resorption, and BMD = bone mass density.