Table 2: Effect of IGF-1 administration on osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

Authors . subjectsAgeDosage
/kg/day
DurationBFBRClinical effects

Johansson et al., 1992 [262]1 M80  /kg/day 2 Bone formation markers increased

Ebeling et al., 1993 [263]18 PMO
66.3 ± 7.8 

30 
60 
120 
180
7 days Significant dose-dependent BR, less BF. Longer treatments are suggested

Rubin et al., 1994 [264]1 W, Werner syndrome, low serum IGF-1 level, and osteoporosis.30–756 months Lumbar bone mass increased 3% BMD

Grinspoon et al., 1995 [265]14 W normal19–33100 μ  ×  26 days Increase bone formation

Ghiron et al., 1995 [266]16 w 
healthy
60, 15  (diet also) 28 days Increase bone mass

Johansson et al., 1996 [257]12 M IO 80  7 days Enhanced bone formation and bone resorption

Grinspoon et al., 1996 [267]23 W18–29200, 60  6 days Increases markers of bone turnover

Mauras et al., 1996 [268]5 M + 3 W 
3 M + 2 W
23–27 
23–25
240 µ
100 µ
5–7 days Synergize with sex steroids to maximally stimulate attainment of peak bone mass in humans

Bianda et al., 1997 [245]7 M192 µ5 days Serum osteocalcin and PICP, the urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine, and calcium/creatinine ratios got significantly higher

Berneis et al., 1999 [159]24 M 
healthy
GH = 0.15 × 2 IU/kg/day 
+ 
IGF-1 = 80 µ
6 daysMarkedly counteracts diminished bone and body collagen synthesis caused by glucocorticoids

Friedlander et al., 2001 [269]24 PMO 15 µ/kg twice daily1 year No effect

Boonen et al., 2002 [270]30 W65–900.5–1 µ/kg/d 8 weeks Effects on bone mass, muscle strength, and functional ability, beneficial trends

Grinspoon et al., 2002 [271]60 W 
osteopenia 
with anorexia
18–3830 μg/kg sc 
twice daily
9 months Increased mIGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3 and bone density increased

Grinspoon et al., 2003 [272] 65 W 
anorexia 
nervosa
30 μg/kg sc 
twice daily
9 monthsIGF-I and IGFBP-3 are independent predictors of bone density

Misra et al., 2009 [273]10 W
low bone 
density and anorexia
12–1830–40 mcg/k 
twice daily
7–9 days Increase in PINP, a bone formation marker

M = men, W = women, PMO = postmenopausal women, MIO = men with idiopatic osteoporosis, BR = bone resorption, BF = bone formation.