Table 3: Effect of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone fractures healing.

AuthorsNumber of 
subjects
AgeType of fractureTherapyDose GH
(mg/kg/day)
DurationResults

Van der Lely et al., 2000 [274]Placebo = 46 
W = 42 
M = 13

Hip fracturerHGH0.026 weeks75% of patients return to the prefracture living situation

Boonen et al., 2002 [270] 65–90Hip fracturerhIGF-I/IGFBP-30.5 = 9 
1.0 = 11
8 weeks 
6 months
Increase bone density and muscle strength and enhance functional recovery

Yeo et al., 2003 [275]31 W86 mediumHip fracturerHGH0.05 (high dose) or 
0.025 (low dose)
14 daysSignificant increase of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and promotes anabolism

Weissberger et al., 2003 [276]33 W60–82Total hip replacementrHGH0.01214 weeks preoperatively and 4 weeks postoperativelyImprovements in lean body mass and skeletal muscle mass

Hedström et al., 2004 [277]20 W<65Hip fracturerHGH0.1 U max 8 U4 weeksIGF-I increased significantly and lean body mass and BMC preserved

Raschke et al., 2007 [278]406 
93 W + 
313 M
18–64Tibial fracturerHGH15, 30, or 60 16 weeksGH did not accelerate time to healing in open fracture

Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm et al., 2011 [279]406 
(313 males and 93 females)
Tibial fracture rHGH15, 30, or 60 16 weeksDose-dependent increases of bone markers*

M = men, W = women.