Table 1: Descriptive data and blood sample data for nondiabetic controls and patients with type 2 diabetes. All blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. HbA1c levels are given as NGSP (%) and as IFCC values (mmol/mol) in parenthesis.

VariableNondiabetic
(n = 18)
Type 2 diabetes
(n = 27)

Gender 9 male (50%)17 male (63%)
Age (years)65.4 ± 1.661.9 ± 1.7
Weight (kg)88.6 ± 5.489.7 ± 3.7
BMI (kg/m2)29.0 ± 1.330.1 ± 1.2
Waist (cm)101.8 ± 3.8104.3 ± 3.0
Hip (cm)108.2 ± 2.9111 ± 3.2
Waist-hip ratio0.94 ± 0.020.97 ± 0.02
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)6.2 ± 0.28.5 ± 0.4*
HbA1c (% (mmol/mol))5.8 ± 0.1% 
(40.1 ± 0.8)
6.8 ± 0.1%* 
(50.6 ± 1.6)
HOMA2%B108.8 ± 5.9577.9 ± 8.3*
HOMA2%S49.1 ± 4.148.7 ± 7.3
HOMA2 IR2.3 ± 0.23.1 ± 0.4
Fasting plasma cholesterol (mmol/L)6.18 ± 0.274.55 ± 0.18*
Fasting plasma HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.46 ± 0.091.18 ± 0.05*
Fasting plasma LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.98 ± 0.222.80 ± 0.15*
Fasting plasma triacylglycerols (mmol/L)1.54 ± 0.161.45 ± 0.12
Plasma creatinine (µmol/L)75 ± 381 ± 3
MDRD-GFR (mL/min)80.7 ± 3.378.4 ± 4.2
Fasting plasma C-peptide (nmol/L)0.98 ± 0.081.20 ± 0.14
Fasting plasma betatrophin (pg/mL)639 ± 66893 ± 80*
Lipid-lowering drugs (statins)n = 4 (22%)n = 13 (48%)
Hypertensive treatmentn = 5 (28%) n = 17 (63%)*

P < 0.05.