International Journal of Endocrinology / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Italian Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Supplementation versus the Improvement of Factors Influencing 25(OH)D Status

Table 2

Comparison of 25(OH)D determinants in Arms A and B of the interventional study.

Arm A Arm A Arm B Arm B

Number of subjects (female : male)213 (200 : 178)205 (200 : 178)165 (193 : 172)160 (193 : 172)
Age, yrs. (median, range)8.8 (3.1–18.9)8.8 (3.1–18.9)9.8 (3.2–19.9)9.8 (3.2–19.9)
Height (SDS)0.0 ± 1.50.0 ± 1.4−0.1 ± 1.60.0 ± 1.5
BMI (SDS)0.5 ± 1.10.5 ± 1.10.5 ± 1.00.5 ± 1.0
Prepubertal/pubertal ratio255 : 123255 : 123236 : 129236 : 129
Serum 25(OH)D status
 sufficiency (%)20.6°°°*
 insufficiency (%)42.0∧∧∧34.4°°°
 deficiency (%)21.0∧∧∧23.1°°°
 severe deficiency (%)7.3∧∧∧21.9°°°**
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)12.64 ± 4.7221.35 ± 7.30°°°***
 children14.56 ± 4.2222.77 ± 7.99°°°**
 adolescents9.96 ± 4.6514.11 ± 5.99°°°*
 normal weight14.34 ± 4.1422.12 ± 6.54°°°**
 overweight11.38 ± 4.2316.34 ± 6.01°**
 obese8.69 ± 3.148.54 ± 3.5711.22 ± 6.02
Dietary intake of vitamin D, IU/day170.1 ± 47.8264 ± 53.7°°°***
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)
 normal milk consumption13.71 ± 4.1126.79 ± 8.65°°°***
 reduced milk consumption11.06 ± 3.9917.17 ± 8.18°°°
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)
 ≤2 hrs outdoor activity/day10.14 ± 3.6715.29 ± 7.11°°°
 2 hrs outdoor activity/day13.64 ± 4.6726.49 ± 6.33°°°***
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)
 low sun exposure11.88 ± 8.129.96 ± 3.8913.12 ± 8.71°°°
 moderate sun exposure14.66 ± 9.0113.17 ± 4.1116.77 ± 6.43°°°*
 good sun exposure15.45 ± 3.9824.55 ± 6.11°°°**
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)
 regular sunscreen use10.29 ± 4.5818.46 ± 7.55°°°
 not regular sunscreen use14.69 ± 4.8826.03 ± 8.79°°°
Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (U/L)128.0 ± 34.9121.7 ± 32.5°***
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)52.88 ± 33.4154.54 ± 37.6749.74 ± 33.71*

Arm A ( or ) versus Arm B ( or ):  < 0.05; < 0.005; < 0.001. Arm A () versus Arm A ():  < 0.05; < 0.005; < 0.001. Arm B () versus Arm B ():  < 0.05; < 0.005; < 0.001. Arm A ( or ) versus Arm A ( or ) or Arm B ( or ) versus Arm B ( or ):  < 0.05; < 0.005; < 0.001.

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