Table 1: Clinical characteristics of study subjects.

Age (years)
Sex (male/female)
BMI (kg/m2)
Disease duration (years)
Hypertension (%)85.0
Dyslipidemia (%)76.7
Smoking (%)27.1
FPG (mmol/L)
HbA1c (%)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
Triglyceride (mmol/L)
Plasma creatinine (mmol/L)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)
25(OH)D (ng/mL)
VDBP (mg/dL)
hs-CRP (mg/dL)
WBC (mm3)
Retinopathy
(none/simple/proliferative)
Nephropathy
(none/microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria/CRF/dialysis)
History of cardiovascular disease (%)32.3

Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± SD. FPG: fasting plasma glucose, eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25(OH)D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, VDBP: vitamin D binding protein, hs-CRP: high sensitive C-reactive protein, WBC: white blood cell count, and CRF: chronic renal failure.