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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 751859, 13 pages
Review Article

Coordinated Actions of FXR and LXR in Metabolism: From Pathogenesis to Pharmacological Targets for Type 2 Diabetes

Endocrinology Department, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, No. 105 Jiefang Road, Jinan, Shandong 250013, China

Received 2 January 2014; Accepted 9 April 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Khalid Hussain

Copyright © 2014 Lin Ding et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most prevalent metabolic disease, and many people are suffering from its complications driven by hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-inducible transcription factors that mediate changes to metabolic pathways within the body. As metabolic regulators, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the liver X receptor (LXR) play key roles in the pathogenesis of T2D, which remains to be clarified in detail. Here we review the recent progress concerning the physiological and pathophysiological roles of FXRs and LXRs in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism and the implications in T2D, taking into account that these two nuclear receptors are potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of T2D and its complications.