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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 820615, 10 pages
Review Article

Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

5th Department of Internal Medicine, Comenius University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital in Bratislava, Ruzinovska 6, 826 06 Bratislava, Slovakia

Received 8 March 2014; Revised 19 April 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 23 June 2014

Academic Editor: Andrea Del Fattore

Copyright © 2014 Peter Jackuliak and Juraj Payer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ∼6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice.