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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 312848, 17 pages
Review Article

Coronary Microvascular Function and Beyond: The Crosstalk between Hormones, Cytokines, and Neurotransmitters

1Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 2, 35100 Padua, Italy
2Centre for Molecular Cardiology, University of Zurich and University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland

Received 19 December 2014; Revised 10 March 2015; Accepted 16 March 2015

Academic Editor: Cristian Ibarra

Copyright © 2015 Carlo Dal Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Beyond its hemodynamic function, the heart also acts as a neuroendocrine and immunoregulatory organ. A dynamic communication between the heart and other organs takes place constantly to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis. The current understanding highlights the importance of the endocrine, immune, and nervous factors to fine-tune the crosstalk of the cardiovascular system with the entire body. Once disrupted, this complex interorgan communication may promote the onset and the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, expanding our knowledge on how these factors influence the cardiovascular system can lead to novel therapeutic strategies to improve patient care. In the present paper, we review novel concepts on the role of endocrine, immune, and nervous factors in the modulation of microvascular coronary function.