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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 484231, 7 pages
Research Article

Four-Point Preprandial Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose for the Assessment of Glycemic Control and Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Insulin and Vildagliptin

1CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova, Italy
2Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, B11 BMC, 22184 Lund, Sweden
3Novartis Pharma AG, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
4Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, One Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936, USA

Received 5 May 2015; Revised 2 October 2015; Accepted 5 October 2015

Academic Editor: Michael Horowitz

Copyright © 2015 Andrea Tura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The study explored the utility of four-point preprandial glucose self-monitoring to calculate several indices of glycemic control and variability in a study adding the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin to ongoing insulin therapy. This analysis utilized data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 29 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with vildagliptin or placebo on top of stable insulin dose. During two 4-week treatment periods, self-monitoring of plasma glucose was undertaken at 4 occasions every day. Glucose values were used to assess several indices of glycemic control quality, such as glucose mean, GRADE, M-VALUE, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia index, and indices of glycemic variability, such as standard deviation, CONGA, J-INDEX, and MAGE. We found that vildagliptin improved the glycemic condition compared to placebo: mean glycemic levels, and both GRADE and M-VALUE, were reduced by vildagliptin . Indices also showed that vildagliptin reduced glycemia without increasing the risk for hypoglycemia. Almost all indices of glycemic variability showed an improvement of the glycemic condition with vildagliptin , though more marked differences were shown by the more complex indices. In conclusion, the study shows that four-sample preprandial glucose self-monitoring is sufficient to yield information on the vildagliptin effects on glycemic control and variability.