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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 591729, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/591729
Review Article

The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Seoul 442723, Republic of Korea

Received 31 December 2014; Revised 24 February 2015; Accepted 24 February 2015

Academic Editor: Michael Horowitz

Copyright © 2015 Tae Won Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.