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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 751530, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/751530
Research Article

Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

1Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal Medicine Clinic, University Hospital Center Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
4Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, University Hospital Center Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
5Faculty of Electrical Engineering Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

Received 12 November 2014; Revised 8 January 2015; Accepted 22 January 2015

Academic Editor: Cristian Ibarra

Copyright © 2015 Ana Cavka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1) blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2) cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3) reaction time, (4) cognitive functions, and (5) response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (). Methods. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject’s attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.