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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 761759, 7 pages
Research Article

Glycemic Control in Kenyan Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

1Pediatric Endocrinology Training Center, Gertrude’s Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
2Pediatrics Clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
3Department of Pediatrics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41124 Modena, Italy
4Endocrinology Clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

Received 5 March 2015; Revised 14 June 2015; Accepted 22 June 2015

Academic Editor: Alberto Barceló

Copyright © 2015 Thomas Ngwiri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common endocrine disorder in children and adolescents worldwide. While data about prevalence, treatment, and complications are recorded in many countries, few data exist for Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control in patients with T1DM aged 1–19 years over a 6-month period in 3 outpatient Kenyan clinics. It also sought to determine how control was influenced by parameters of patient and treatment. Methods. Eighty-two children and adolescents with T1DM were included in the study. Clinical history regarding duration of illness, type and dose of insulin, and recent symptoms of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia were recorded. Glycaemia, HbA1c, and ketonuria were tested. HbA1c of 8.0% and below was defined as the cut-off for acceptable control. Results. The median HbA1c for the study population was 11.1% (range: 6.3–18.8). Overall, only 28% of patients had reasonable glycemic control as defined in this study. 72% therefore had poor control. It was also found that age above 12 years was significantly associated with poor control. Conclusions. African children and with T1DM are poorly controlled particularly in adolescents. Our data strongly support the necessity of Kenya children to receive more aggressive management and follow-up.