Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 810439, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/810439
Review Article

Diabetes Mellitus, Cognitive Impairment, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

1National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
2Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
3School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
5School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

Received 5 January 2015; Accepted 15 April 2015

Academic Editor: Andrea Tura

Copyright © 2015 S. W. Seto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Darsalia, U. Heldmann, O. Lindvall, and Z. Kokaia, “Stroke-induced neurogenesis in aged brain,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1790–1795, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. R. Whiting, L. Guariguata, C. Weil, and J. Shaw, “IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 311–321, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Z. Arvanitakis, R. S. Wilson, J. L. Bienias, D. A. Evans, and D. A. Bennett, “Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 661–666, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. M. B. Breteler, “Vascular involvement in cognitive decline and dementia. Epidemiologic evidence from the Rotterdam study and the Rotterdam scan study,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 903, pp. 457–465, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. W. J. Strachan, R. M. Reynolds, R. E. Marioni, and J. F. Price, “Cognitive function, dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Cheng, C. Huang, H. Deng, and H. Wang, “Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 484–491, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. J. Biessels, S. Staekenborg, E. Brunner, C. Brayne, and P. Scheltens, “Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 64–74, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F.-P. Lu, K.-P. Lin, and H.-K. Kuo, “Diabetes and the risk of multi-system aging phenotypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 1, Article ID e4144, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. J. Biessels, A. Koffeman, and P. Scheltens, “Diabetes and cognitive impairment: clinical diagnosis and brain imaging in patients attending a memory clinic,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 253, no. 4, pp. 477–482, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. D. Korczyn, “Mixed dementia—the most common cause of dementia,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 977, pp. 129–134, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. B. Gorelick, A. Scuteri, S. E. Black et al., “Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2672–2713, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. B. Toledo, S. E. Arnold, K. Raible et al., “Contribution of cerebrovascular disease in autopsy confirmed neurodegenerative disease cases in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre,” Brain, vol. 136, no. 9, pp. 2697–2706, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. M. Jacobson, G. Musen, C. M. Ryan et al., “Long-term effect of diabetes and its treatment on cognitive function,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 18, pp. 1842–1852, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Luchsinger, W. Palmas, J. A. Teresi et al., “Improved diabetes control in the elderly delays global cognitive decline,” Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 445–449, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. M. Ryan, T. M. Williams, D. N. Finegold, and T. J. Orchard, “Cognitive dysfunction in adults with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus of long duration: effects of recurrent hypoglycaemia and other chronic complications,” Diabetologia, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 329–334, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. J. Launer, M. E. Miller, J. D. Williamson et al., “Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 969–977, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Li, J. Deng, W. Sheng, and Z. Zuo, “Metformin attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology in obese, leptin-resistant mice,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 564–574, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. E. Risner, A. M. Saunders, J. F. B. Altman et al., “Efficacy of rosiglitazone in a genetically defined population with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease,” The Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 246–254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. L. Li, H. C. Zheng, J. Bukuru, and N. de Kimpe, “Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Xu, L. Guo, and G. Tian, “Diabetes cognitive impairments and the effect of traditional Chinese herbs,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 649396, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Cukierman-Yaffe, H. C. Gerstein, J. D. Williamson et al., “Relationship between baseline glycemic control and cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Memory in Diabetes (ACCORD-MIND) Trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 221–226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Fontbonne, C. Berr, P. Ducimetiere, and A. Alperovitch, “Changes in cognitive abilities over a 4-year period are unfavorably affected in elderly diabetic subjects: results of the epidemiology of vascular aging study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 366–370, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Cukierman, H. C. Gerstein, and J. D. Williamson, “Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes—systematic overview of prospective observational studies,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2460–2469, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. M. A. Brands, G. J. Biessels, E. H. F. de Haan, L. J. Kappelle, and R. P. C. Kessels, “The effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 726–735, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Grodstein, J. Chen, R. S. Wilson, and J. E. Manson, “Type 2 diabetes and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1060–1065, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Messier, “Impact of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes on cognitive aging,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 26, no. 1, supplement, pp. 26–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. D. Mooradian, J. Li, and G. N. Shah, “Age-related changes in thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRP) expression in cerebral tissue of rats,” Brain Research, vol. 793, no. 1-2, pp. 302–304, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. J. Schoenle, D. Schoenle, L. Molinari, and R. H. Largo, “Impaired intellectual development in children with type I diabetes: association with HbA1c, age at diagnosis and sex,” Diabetologia, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. M. Wessels, S. A. R. B. Rombouts, P. L. Remijnse et al., “Cognitive performance in type 1 diabetes patients is associated with cerebral white matter volume,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1763–1769, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Ruis, G. J. Biessels, K. J. Gorter, M. Van Den Donk, L. J. Kappelle, and G. E. H. M. Rutten, “Cognition in the early stage of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1261–1265, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. A. Northam, P. J. Anderson, G. A. Werther, G. L. Warne, and D. Andrewes, “Predictors of change in the neuropsychological profiles of children with type 1 diabetes 2 years after disease onset,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1438–1444, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. K. Crane, R. Walker, R. A. Hubbard et al., “Glucose levels and risk of dementia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 6, pp. 540–548, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Kerti, A. V. Witte, A. Winkler, U. Grittner, D. Rujescu, and A. Flöel, “Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure,” Neurology, vol. 81, no. 20, pp. 1746–1752, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. McKelvey, H. Bergman, J. Stern, C. Rush, G. Zahirney, and H. Chertkow, “Lack of prognostic significance of SPECT abnormalities in non-demented elderly subjects with memory loss,” Le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. J. Modrego, N. Fayed, and M. A. Pina, “Conversion from mild cognitive impairment to probable Alzheimer's disease predicted by brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 667–675, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. C. Morris, M. Storandt, J. P. Miller et al., “Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 397–405, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Artero, M. L. Ancelin, F. Portet et al., “Risk profiles for mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia are gender specific,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 979–984, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Xu, B. Caracciolo, H.-X. Wang et al., “Accelerated progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in people with diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 2928–2935, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y.-C. Chen, Y. Jiao, Y. Cui et al., “Aberrant brain functional connectivity related to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a resting-state fmri study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1689–1696, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. García-Casares, R. E. Jorge, J. A. García-Arnés et al., “Cognitive dysfunctions in middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients and neuroimaging correlations: a cross-sectional study,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1337–1346, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. W. Xia, S. Wang, Z. Sun et al., “Altered baseline brain activity in type 2 diabetes: a resting-state fMRI study,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 2493–2501, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. X. Wang, K. L. Fu, H. J. Liu, F. Xing, S. Zhang, and P. A. Valdes-Sosa, “Spontaneous brain activity in type 2 diabetics revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and its association with diabetic vascular disease: a resting-state FMRI study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e108883, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. H. Zhou, W. Lu, Y. Shi et al., “Impairments in cognition and resting-state connectivity of the hippocampus in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 473, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. G. Exalto, R. A. Whitmer, L. J. Kappele, and G. J. Biessels, “An update on type 2 diabetes, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 858–864, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. D. Reijmer, E. van den Berg, C. Ruis, L. J. Kappelle, and G. J. Biessels, “Cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 507–519, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. G. Bruce, W. A. Davis, G. P. Casey et al., “Predictors of cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 241–248, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Peila, B. L. Rodriguez, and L. J. Launer, “Type 2 diabetes, APOE gene, and the risk for dementia and related pathologies: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1256–1262, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. C. M. Croxson and C. Jagger, “Diabetes and cognitive impairment: a community-based study of elderly subjects,” Age and Ageing, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 421–424, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. B. Hassing, M. D. Grant, S. M. Hofer et al., “Type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to cognitive decline in old age: a longitudinal population-based study,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 599–607, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Katzman, D. Kang, and R. Thomas, “Interaction of apolipoprotein E ε 4 with other genetic and non-genetic risk factors in late onset Alzheimer disease: problems facing the investigator,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 369–376, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. M. Parikh, R. O. Morgan, M. E. Kunik et al., “Risk factors for dementia in patients over 65 with diabetes,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 749–757, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. H. Gispen and G.-J. Biessels, “Cognition and synaptic plasticity in diabetes mellitus,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 542–549, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Ahtiluoto, T. Polvikoski, M. Peltonen et al., “Diabetes, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia: a population-based neuropathologic study,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 13, pp. 1195–1202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. A. Sonnen, E. B. Larson, K. Brickell et al., “Different patterns of cerebral injury in dementia with or without diabetes,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 315–322, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. de la Torre, “Detection, prevention, and pre-clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 42, supplement 4, pp. S327–S328, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. J. Kwon, E. J. Lee, M. K. Kim et al., “Diabetes augments cognitive dysfunction in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by increasing neuronal cell death: implication of cilostazol for diabetes mellitus-induced dementia,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 73, pp. 12–23, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. P. K. Elias, M. F. Elias, R. B. D'Agostino et al., “NIDDM and blood pressure as risk factors for poor cognitive performance: the Framingham Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1388–1395, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. van den Berg, Y. D. Reijmer, J. de Bresser, R. P. C. Kessels, L. J. Kappelle, and G. J. Biessels, “A 4 year follow-up study of cognitive functioning in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 58–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. J. Hamilton and G. F. Watts, “Atherogenic dyslipidemia and combination pharmacotherapy in diabetes: recent clinical trials,” The Review of Diabetic Studies, vol. 10, no. 2-3, pp. 191–203, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. C. Chan, P. H. R. Barrett, and G. F. Watts, “The metabolic and pharmacologic bases for treating atherogenic dyslipidaemia,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 369–385, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. P. Kloppenborg, E. van den Berg, L. J. Kappelle, and G. J. Biessels, “Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia: which factor matters most? A systematic review,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 585, no. 1, pp. 97–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Rodriguez, F. Nobili, M. A. Celestino et al., “Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in IDDM,” Diabetes Care, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 462–468, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. T. Schram, N. Chaturvedi, C. G. Schalkwijk, J. H. Fuller, and C. D. A. Stehouwer, “Markers of inflammation are cross-sectionally associated with microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes—the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 370–378, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Suzuki, M. Saito, T. Nagai, H. Saeki, and Y. Kazatani, “Systemic versus coronary levels of inflammation in acute coronary syndromes,” Angiology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 459–463, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Yngen, C. G. Östenson, H. Hu, N. Li, P. Hjemdahl, and N. H. Wallén, “Enhanced P-selectin expression and increased soluble CD40 Ligand in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and microangiopathy: evidence for platelet hyperactivity and chronic inflammation,” Diabetologia, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 537–540, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. J. Biessels, E. J. Stevens, S. J. Mahmood, W. H. Gispen, and D. R. Tomlinson, “Insulin partially reverses deficits in peripheral nerve blood flow and conduction in experimental diabetes,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 140, no. 1-2, pp. 12–20, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. R. Thal, L. T. Grinberg, and J. Attems, “Vascular dementia: different forms of vessel disorders contribute to the development of dementia in the elderly brain,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 816–824, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. M. Gold, I. Dziobek, V. Sweat et al., “Hippocampal damage and memory impairments as possible early brain complications of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 711–719, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. M. Kanaya, E. Barrett-Connor, G. Gildengorin, and K. Yaffe, “Change in cognitive function by glucose tolerance status in older adults: a 4-year prospective study of the Rancho Bernardo Study cohort,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 1327–1333, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Vanhanen and H. Soininen, “Glucose intolerance, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 673–677, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. Yaffe, T. Blackwell, R. A. Whitmer, K. Krueger, and E. Barrett-Connor, “Glycosylated hemoglobin level and development of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in older women,” Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 292–295, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. M. Reaven, L. W. Thompson, D. Nahum, and E. Haskins, “Relationship between hyperglycemia and cognitive function in older NIDDM patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. Wright Jr., J. L. Scism-Bacon, and L. C. Glass, “Oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: the role of fasting and postprandial glycaemia,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 308–314, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. Toth, V. Brussee, J. A. Martinez, D. McDonald, F. A. Cunningham, and D. W. Zochodne, “Rescue and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve axons by intrathecal insulin,” Neuroscience, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 429–449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. X. Gironès, A. Guimerà, C.-Z. Cruz-Sánchez et al., “Nε-carboxymethyllysine in brain aging, diabetes mellitus, and Alzheimer's disease,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1241–1247, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. F. K. Ahmad, Z. He, and G. L. King, “Molecular targets of diabetic cardiovascular complications,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 487–494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. Valente, A. Gella, X. Fernàndez-Busquets, M. Unzeta, and N. Durany, “Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain suggests pathological synergism of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 67–76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Comin, L. Gazarini, J. N. Zanoni, H. Milani, and R. M. W. de Oliveira, “Vitamin E improves learning performance and changes the expression of nitric oxide-producing neurons in the brains of diabetic rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 210, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Fukui, N. O. Omoi, T. Hayasaka et al., “Cognitive impairment of rats caused by oxidative stress and aging, and its prevention by vitamin E,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 959, pp. 275–284, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Brownlee, “The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1615–1625, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. N. Auer, “Hypoglycemic brain damage,” Metabolic Brain Disease, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 169–175, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. W. Patrick, R. F. Jeffrey, A. Collier, B. F. Clarke, and M. R. Lee, “Relationship between urinary excretion of sodium and dopamine in Type 1 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. E. C. McNay and V. E. Cotero, “Mini-review: impact of recurrent hypoglycemia on cognitive and brain function,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 234–238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. A. Whitmer, A. J. Karter, K. Yaffe, C. P. Quesenberry Jr., and J. V. Selby, “Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 301, no. 15, pp. 1565–1572, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. G. Bruce, W. A. Davis, G. P. Casey et al., “Severe hypoglycaemia and cognitive impairment in older patients with diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study,” Diabetologia, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1808–1815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. E. Warren and B. M. Frier, “Hypoglycaemia and cognitive function,” Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 493–503, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. Hershey, S. Craft, N. Bhargava, and N. H. White, “Memory and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): effects of childhood onset and severe hypoglycemia,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 509–520, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. W. A. Banks, M. J. During, and M. L. Niehoff, “Brain uptake of the glucagon-like peptide-1 antagonist exendin(9–39) after intranasal administration,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 309, no. 2, pp. 469–475, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. C. Woods, R. J. Seeley, D. G. Baskin, and M. W. Schwartz, “Insulin and the blood-brain barrier,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 795–800, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. Steen, B. M. Terry, E. J. Rivera et al., “Impaired insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression and signaling mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease—is this type 3 diabetes?” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–80, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. A. Bondy and C. M. Cheng, “Signaling by insulin-like growth factor 1 in brain,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 490, no. 1–3, pp. 25–31, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. K. Gerozissis, “Brain insulin and feeding: a bi-directional communication,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 490, no. 1–3, pp. 59–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. W.-Q. Zhao and D. L. Alkon, “Role of insulin and insulin receptor in learning and memory,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 177, no. 1-2, pp. 125–134, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. Frölich, D. Blum-Degen, H.-G. Bernstein et al., “Brain insulin and insulin receptors in aging and sporadic Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 105, no. 4-5, pp. 423–438, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Kalmijn, J. A. M. J. L. Janssen, H. A. P. Pols, S. W. J. Lamberts, and M. M. B. Breteler, “A prospective study on circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding proteins, and cognitive function in the elderly,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 4551–4555, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. Kuusisto, K. Koivisto, L. Mykkänen et al., “Association between features of the insulin resistance syndrome and Alzheimer's disease independently of apolipoprotein E4 phenotype: cross sectional population based study,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7115, pp. 1045–1049, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. W. Farris, S. Mansourian, Y. Chang et al., “Insulin-degrading enzyme regulates the levels of insulin, amyloid β-protein, and the β-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain in vivo,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 4162–4167, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. W. Q. Qiu, D. M. Walsh, Z. Ye et al., “Insulin-degrading enzyme regulates extracellular levels of amyloid β-protein by degradation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 49, pp. 32730–32738, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. V. Bhat, J. Shanley, M. P. Correll et al., “Regulation and localization of tyrosine216 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in cellular and animal models of neuronal degeneration,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 20, pp. 11074–11079, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. J. Phiel, C. A. Wilson, V. M.-Y. Lee, and P. S. Klein, “GSK-3α regulates production of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β peptides,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6938, pp. 435–439, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Badawi, A. Klip, P. Haddad et al., “Type 2 diabetes mellitus and inflammation: prospects for biomarkers of risk and nutritional intervention,” Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, vol. 4, pp. 173–186, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  102. J. C. Pickup and M. A. Crook, “Is type II diabetes mellitus a disease of the innate immune system?” Diabetologia, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1241–1248, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. L. King, “The role of inflammatory cytokines in diabetes and its complications,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1527–1534, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. Akiyama, T. Arai, H. Kondo, E. Tanno, C. Haga, and K. Ikeda, “Cell mediators of inflammation in the Alzheimer disease brain,” Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. S47–S53, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. T. Ferreira, J. R. Clarke, T. R. Bomfim, and F. G. de Felice, “Inflammation, defective insulin signaling, and neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease,” Alzheimer's and Dementia, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. S76–S83, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. N. K. Acharya, E. C. Levin, P. M. Clifford et al., “Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia increase blood-brain barrier permeability and brain amyloid deposition: beneficial effects of the LpPLA2 inhibitor darapladib,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 179–198, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. J. Farrall and J. M. Wardlaw, “Blood-brain barrier: ageing and microvascular disease—systematic review and meta-analysis,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 337–352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. D. Bell and B. V. Zlokovic, “Neurovascular mechanisms and blood-brain barrier disorder in Alzheimer's disease,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 103–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. L. Ownby, “Neuroinflammation and cognitive aging,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. W. Pimplikar, “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: from pathogenesis to a therapeutic target,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 34, supplement 1, pp. S64–S69, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. T. R. Bomfim, L. Forny-Germano, L. B. Sathler et al., “An anti-diabetes agent protects the mouse brain from defective insulin signaling caused by Alzheimer's disease-associated Aβ oligomers,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1339–1353, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. S. Hotamisligil, R. S. Johnson, R. J. Distel, R. Ellis, V. E. Papaioannou, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Uncoupling of obesity from insulin resistance through a targeted mutation in aP2, the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein,” Science, vol. 274, no. 5291, pp. 1377–1379, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Milanski, G. Degasperi, A. Coope et al., “Saturated fatty acids produce an inflammatory response predominantly through the activation of TLR4 signaling in hypothalamus: implications for the pathogenesis of obesity,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 359–370, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. W. Seto, Y. W. Kwan, and S. M. Ngai, “Modulatory effect of interleukin-1β on rat isolated basilar artery contraction,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 531, no. 1–3, pp. 238–245, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. B. Lin, N. Koibuchi, Y. Hasegawa et al., “Glycemic control with empagliflozin, a novel selective SGLT2 inhibitor, ameliorates cardiovascular injury and cognitive dysfunction in obese and type 2 diabetic mice,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 13, no. 1, article 148, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. S. Heller, P. Kozlovski, and P. Kurtzhals, “Insulin's 85th anniversary—an enduring medical miracle,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 149–158, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. E. R. Seaquist, J. Anderson, B. Childs et al., “Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of aworkgroup of the American diabetes association and the endocrine society,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1384–1395, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. G. Languren, T. Montiel, A. Julio-Amilpas, and L. Massieu, “Neuronal damage and cognitive impairment associated with hypoglycemia: an integrated view,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 331–343, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. B. Y. Dai, “Present advance in therapeutical mechanism of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicial system,” Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 7, pp. 23–24, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  120. K. Y. Zhu, “A discuss on symptoms and therapies of diabetes in traditional Chinese medical system,” Shanghai Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 6, p. 6, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  121. J. Guo, H. Chen, J. Song, J. Wang, L. Zhao, and X. Tong, “Syndrome differentiation of diabetes by the traditional Chinese medicine according to evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 492193, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. H.-N. Wang, “Characteristics and difficulties in clinical trials of new traditional Chinese drugs,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 650–652, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. X. Qin, Y. Liu, Y. Wu et al., “A meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicines for vascular dementia,” Neural Regeneration Research, vol. 8, no. 18, pp. 1685–1692, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. B. L. Sun and C. K. Chiang, “Effect of danhong injection on apnea hypopnea syndrome patients with Type 2 diabetes,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rational Drug Use, vol. 7, pp. 121–122, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  125. H. P. Zhang, H. Z. Li, and T. S. Lau, “Effect of astragalus and ligustrazine injection on short-term memory and brain evoked potentials of diabetic patients with decreased brain function,” Chinese Journal of Gerontology, vol. 30, pp. 888–890, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  126. F. Zou, X.-Q. Mao, N. Wang, J. Liu, and J.-P. Ou-Yang, “Astragalus polysaccharides alleviates glucose toxicity and restores glucose homeostasis in diabetic states via activation of AMPK,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1607–1615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. W. Zhang, L. Zheng, Z. Zhang, and C.-X. Hai, “Protective effect of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on insulin resistance in rats,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 890–898, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. S. Qian, S. Wang, P. Fan, D. Huo, L. Dai, and Q. Qian, “Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza hydrophilic extract on the endothelial biomarkers in diabetic patients with chronic artery disease,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1575–1578, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. H. Lee, M. Kim, S. Shik Shin, and M. Yoon, “Ginseng treatment reverses obesity and related disorders by inhibiting angiogenesis in female db/db mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 1342–1352, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. E.-Y. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-K. Kim et al., “Increase in insulin secretion induced by panax ginseng berry extracts contributes to the amelioration of hyperglycemia in streptozotocininduced diabetic mice,” Journal of Ginseng Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. M. S. Chang, M. S. Oh, D. R. Kim et al., “Effects of Okchun-San, a herbal formulation, on blood glucose levels and body weight in a model of Type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 491–495, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J.-H. Hsu, Y.-C. Wu, I.-M. Liu, and J.-T. Cheng, “Dioscorea as the principal herb of Die-Huang-Wan, a widely used herbal mixture in China, for improvement of insulin resistance in fructose-rich chow-fed rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 577–584, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. S. W. Seto, T. Y. Lam, H. L. Tam et al., “Novel hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum water-extract in obese/diabetic (+db/+db) mice,” Phytomedicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 426–436, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. S. H. Kim and S. Y. Choung, “Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 325–333, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. S. H. Kim, S. H. Hyun, and S. Y. Choung, “Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice,” BioFactors, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 209–219, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. D. Y. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, S. Y. Ryu et al., “Platyconic acid, a saponin from Platycodi radix, improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 529–540, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. Q.-H. Yang, Y. Liang, Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, L. Xiao, and L.-Y. Si, “Protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong on nephropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Phytomedicine, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1148–1152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. D. Gao, M. Zhao, X. Qi et al., “Hypoglycemic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins by enhancing the Nrf2 signaling pathway in STZ-inducing diabetic rats,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. W. Qiao, C. Zhao, N. Qin, H. Y. Zhai, and H. Q. Duan, “Identification of trans-tiliroside as active principle with anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects from Potentilla chinesis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 515–521, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. H. Nakamura, T. Ishigami, Y. Kawase et al., “Effects of acupuncture stimulation on blood glucose concentration in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model for type-2 diabetes mellitus,” Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, vol. 20, pp. 70–75, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. S.-L. Chang, Y.-C. Lee, T.-M. Li et al., “Electroacupuncture at the Zusanli (ST-36) acupoint induces a hypoglycemic effect by stimulating the cholinergic nerve in a rat model of streptozotocine-induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 650263, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. S. Choi, G.-J. Lee, S.-J. Chae et al., “Potential neuroprotective effects of acupuncture stimulation on diabetes mellitus in a global ischemic rat model,” Physiological Measurement, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 633–647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. M. T. Cabioglu and N. Ergene, “Changes in levels of serum insulin, C-peptide and glucose after electroacupuncture and diet therapy in obese women,” The American journal of Chinese medicine, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 367–376, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. S. Ahn and R. Song, “Effects of tai chi exercise on glucose control, neuropathy scores, balance, and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1172–1178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. X. Liu, Y. D. Miller, N. W. Burton, J.-H. Chang, and W. J. Brown, “The effect of Tai Chi on health-related quality of life in people with elevated blood glucose or diabetes: a randomized controlled trial,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1783–1786, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. R. Song, S. Ahn, B. L. Roberts, E. O. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Adhering to a t'ai chi program to improve glucose control and quality of life for individuals with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 627–632, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. Y. Zhang and F. H. Fu, “Effects of 14-week Tai Ji quan exercise on metabolic control in women with type 2 diabetes,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 647–654, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S.-H. Yeh, H. Chuang, L.-W. Lin et al., “Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 845–850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. J. Y. Lin, J. H. Liu, X. H. Liu, and D. F. Gu, “Effect of Fufang Danshen Diwan on the cognitive function of diabetic patients complicated with coronary heart disease,” Chinese Journal of New Drugs, vol. 18, pp. 1213–1216, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  150. H. L. Li and M. M. Yeung, “Clinical study of Zhi Nao capsule on cognitive dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients,” in Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference of the Chinese Assocation of Integrated Medicine, pp. 146–150, 2011.
  151. W.-W. Li, H. Guo, H.-H. Li, L.-L. Wang, H. Fu, and X.-M. Wang, “Integration of traditional Chinese medicines and western medicines for treating diabetes mellitus with coronary heart disease: a systematic review,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 492–500, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. Y. Zhang, “Effect of Nao Xin Tong on cognitive functions in stroke patients with diabetes,” Guide of China Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 265–266, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  153. X. Y. Ding, “Combined therapy of alprostadil with Lao Xin Tong improves cognitive functions in diabetic patients,” Zhejiang Clinical Medical Journal, vol. 13, article 1251, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  154. C. Huang, C. Tan, J. He, J. Deng, and Z. Wei, “Clincial observation on shengmai dingzhi decoction in treating diabetes and cerebral vascular dementia,” Henan Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 29, pp. 1179–1181, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  155. X. D. Ji, “Clinical study on the effect if Bushen Quyu Yizhi decoction in treating diabetic cognitive dysfunction,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 37, p. 2371, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  156. S. Jin, J. Lang, X. Yang et al., “Clinical reserach on efficacy of bushen huoxue kaiqiao prescription in the treatment of 30 diabetes-induced vascular mild cognitive impairment cases,” Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, vol. 15, pp. 1051–1054, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  157. J. Filshie, “The non-drug treatment of neuralgic and neuropathic pain of malignancy,” Cancer Surveys, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 161–193, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. P. Chou, H. Chu, and J.-G. Lin, “Effects of electroacupuncture treatment on impaired cognition and quality of life in Taiwanese stroke patients,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1067–1073, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. Y.-X. Xu, G.-Z. Chen, J.-W. Zhang, and Z.-Z. Zhu, “Influence of electro-acupuncture on quality of life in patients with diabetic cognitive dysfunction,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 48, pp. 53–55, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. Y. Xu and J. Zhang, “Influence of electroacupuncture on learning and memory ability in diabetic cognitive dysfunction patients,” Acupuncture Reserach, vol. 31, pp. 232–238, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  161. E. Chan, C. Y.-K. Wong, C.-W. Wan et al., “Evaluation of anti-oxidant capacity of root of scutellaria baicalensis georgi, in comparison with roots of Polygonum multiflorum thunb and Panax ginseng CA meyer,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 815–827, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. M. Y. Lee, D. S. Choi, M. K. Lee et al., “Comparison of acarbose and voglibose in diabetes patients who are inadequately controlled with basal insulin treatment: randomized, parallel, open-label, active-controlled study,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  163. F. Nanjo, M. Mori, K. Goto, and Y. Hara, “Radical scavenging activity of tea catechins and their related compounds,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1621–1623, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. J. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Suo, Y. Liu, and B. Zhao, “Green tea catechins ameliorate adipose insulin resistance by improving oxidative stress,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1648–1657, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. K. Unno, F. Takabayashi, H. Yoshida et al., “Daily consumption of green tea catechin delays memory regression in aged mice,” Biogerontology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 89–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. T. Baluchnejadmojarad and M. Roghani, “Chronic epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats via modulation of nitric oxide and oxidative stress,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 305–310, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. P. Bhutada, Y. Mundhada, K. Bansod et al., “Protection of cholinergic and antioxidant system contributes to the effect of berberine ameliorating memory dysfunction in rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 220, no. 1, pp. 30–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. Y.-W. Liu, X. Zhu, W. Li et al., “Ginsenoside Re attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive deficits in rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. F. F. Y. Lam, J. H. K. Yeung, J. H. Y. Cheung, and P. M. Y. Or, “Pharmacological evidence for calcium channel inhibition by Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on rat isolated femoral artery,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. C. G. Shi, Y. S. Yang, H. Li et al., “Tanshinol protects hippocampus and attenuates vascular dementia development,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 16, pp. 667–676, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  171. Y. Liu, L. Wang, X. Li, C. Lv, D. Feng, and Z. Luo, “Tanshinone IIA improves impaired nerve functions in experimental diabetic rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 399, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. A. Kuhad and K. Chopra, “Curcumin attenuates diabetic encephalopathy in rats: behavioral and biochemical evidences,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 576, no. 1–3, pp. 34–42, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. A. Kuhad, S. Sharma, and K. Chopra, “Lycopene attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 624–632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. T. Wang, F. Fu, B. Han, L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Danshensu ameliorates the cognitive decline in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by attenuating advanced glycation end product-mediated neuroinflammation,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 245, no. 1-2, pp. 79–86, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. J.-P. Liu, L. Feng, M.-H. Zhang et al., “Neuroprotective effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on cognition deficits of diabetic encephalopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 371–381, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. J. Chen, L. Liang, L. Zhan et al., “ZiBuPiYin recipe protects db/db mice from diabetes-associated cognitive decline through improving multiple pathological changes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e91680, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus