Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 856708, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/856708
Clinical Study

Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Free Acid Ingestion and Resistance Exercise on the Acute Endocrine Response

Institute of Exercise Science and Wellness, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

Received 16 December 2014; Accepted 22 January 2015

Academic Editor: Faustino R. Perez-Lopez

Copyright © 2015 Jeremy R. Townsend et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Wilson, R. P. Lowery, J. M. Joy et al., “The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 1217–1227, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. J. Kraemer, D. L. Hatfield, J. S. Volek et al., “Effects of amino acids supplement on physiological adaptations to resistance training,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1111–1121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Nissen, R. Sharp, M. Ray et al., “Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 2095–2104, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Gallagher, J. Carrithers, M. Godard, K. Schulze, and S. Trappe, “β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation during resistance training,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 31, no. 5, p. S402, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Portal, Z. Zadik, J. Rabinowitz et al., “The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 2261–2269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. R. Hoffman, J. Cooper, M. Wendell, J. Im, and J. Kang, “Effects of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on power performance and indices of muscle damage and stress during high-intensity training,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 747–752, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. B. Panton, J. A. Rathmacher, S. Baier, and S. Nissen, “Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β- methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training,” Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 734–739, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. C. Fuller Jr., R. L. Sharp, H. F. Angus, S. M. Baier, and J. A. Rathmacher, “Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy β- Methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 367–372, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Wilson, P. J. Fitschen, B. Campbell et al., “International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB),” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. E. Zanchi, F. Gerlinger-Romero, L. Guimarães-Ferreira et al., “HMB supplementation: clinical and athletic performance-related effects and mechanisms of action,” Amino Acids, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1015–1025, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. L. Eley, S. T. Russell, and M. J. Tisdale, “Attenuation of depression of muscle protein synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor, and angiotensin II by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. E1409–E1416, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. L. Eley, S. T. Russell, J. H. Baxter, P. Mukerji, and M. J. Tisdale, “Signaling pathways initiated by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate to attenuate the depression of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in response to cachectic stimuli,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 293, no. 4, pp. E923–E931, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Wilson, R. P. Lowery, J. M. Joy et al., “β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 538–544, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. J. Kraemer, D. L. Hatfield, B. A. Comstock et al., “Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 247–255, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J. R. Townsend, M. S. Fragala, A. R. Jajtner et al., “β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB)-free acid attenuates circulating TNF-α and TNFR1 expression postresistance exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 1173–1182, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. M. Gonzalez, M. S. Fragala, A. R. Jajtner et al., “Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on expression of CR3 and MIP-1β following resistance exercise,” The American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 306, no. 7, pp. R483–R489, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. J. Wilkinson, T. Hossain, D. S. Hill et al., “Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 591, no. 11, pp. 2911–2923, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. D. Pimentel, J. C. Rosa, F. S. Lira et al., “ß-Hydroxy-ß- methylbutyrate (HM) supplementation stimulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats via the mTOR pathway,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 8, article 11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Gerlinger-Romero, L. Guimarães-Ferreira, G. Giannocco, and M. T. Nunes, “Chronic supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate (HMβ) increases the activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and induces hyperinsulinemia in rats,” Growth Hormone & IGF Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 57–62, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Hoffman, Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill, USA, 2006.
  21. A. S. Jackson and M. L. Pollock, “Practical assessment of body composition,” Physician and Sportsmedicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 76–90, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Nissen, M. van Koevering, and D. Webb, “Analysis of β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate in plasma by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 17–19, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Gonzalez, J. R. Stout, A. R. Jajtner et al., “Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on post-exercise markers of muscle damage,” Amino Acids, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1501–1511, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. R. Kraemer, J. L. Kilgore, G. R. Kraemer, and V. D. Castracane, “Growth hormone, IGF-I, and testosterone responses to resistive exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1346–1352, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. J. Pritzlaff, L. Wideman, J. Y. Weltman et al., “Impact of acute exercise intensity on pulsatile growth hormone release in men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 498–504, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Sutton and L. Lazarus, “Growth hormone in exercise: comparison of physiological and pharmacological stimuli,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 523–527, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. R. Hoffman, J. Im, K. W. Rundell et al., “Effect of muscle oxygenation during resistance exercise on anabolic hormone response,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1929–1934, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Bucci, J. F. Hickson Jr., J. M. Pivarnik, I. Wolinsky, J. C. McMahon, and S. D. Turner, “Ornithine ingestion and growth hormone release in bodybuilders,” Nutrition Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 239–245, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. R. Collier, D. P. Casey, and J. A. Kanaley, “Growth hormone responses to varying doses of oral arginine,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 136–139, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Isidori, A. Lo Monaco, and M. Cappa, “A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acids,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 475–481, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. R. Suminski, R. J. Robertson, F. L. Goss et al., “Acute effect of amino acid ingestion and resistance exercise on plasma growth hormone concentration in young men,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 48–60, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Bratusch-Marrain and W. Waldhausl, “The influence of amino acids and somatostatin on prolactin and growth hormone release in man,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 403–408, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. C. Fry, W. J. Kraemer, M. H. Stone et al., “Endocrine and performance responses to high volume training and amino acid supplementation in elite junior weightlifters,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 306–322, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. M. Fogelholm, H. K. Näveri, K. T. Kiilavuori, and M. H. Härkönen, “Low-dose amino acid supplementation: no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weightlifters,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 290–297, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Vijayakumar, R. Novosyadlyy, Y. Wu, S. Yakar, and D. LeRoith, “Biological effects of growth hormone on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism,” Growth Hormone & IGF Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. P. Lowery, J. M. Joy, J. A. Rathmacher et al., “Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals,” Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Shreeram, P. W. Johns, S. Subramaniam et al., “The relative bioavailability of the calcium salt of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate is greater than that of the free fatty acid form in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 144, no. 10, pp. 1549–1555, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar