Figure 3: ALA inhibited NADPH oxidase through activation of insulin receptor and PI3K/Akt signaling. (a) The expression of p-insulin receptor, total insulin receptor, p-Akt, total Akt, p47-phox, and gp91-phox. (b) Quantitative analysis of the expression of proteins. For the ALA + MCAO/R group, ALA (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was daily administered to rats for 3 days. For the sham and MCAO/R groups, the rats were given the same amount of ethanol. Data were expressed as means ± SEM. ## compared with the sham group. compared with the MCAO/R group. compared with the ALA + MCAO/R group.