Figure 4: ALA suppressed MCAO/R-induced oxidative stress. (a) ALA inhibited MCAO/R-induced upregulation of NADPH oxidase activity. (b) ALA suppressed MCAO/R-induced superoxide generation and the increment of oxidative stress indicators including MDA (c), protein carbonyl (d), and 8-OHdG (e). For the ALA + MCAO/R group, ALA (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was daily administered to rats for 3 days. For the sham and MCAO/R groups, the rats were given the same amount of ethanol. Data were expressed as means ± SEM. ## compared with the sham group. compared with the MCAO/R group. compared with the ALA + MCAO/R group.