Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 934681, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/934681
Research Article

Comparison of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein as Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Coronary Heart Disease: In Search of the Best Predictor

1División de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Marcoleta 367, Octavo Piso, Santiago Centro, 8330024 Santiago, Chile
2Unidad de Prevención ACV y Rehabilitación Cardiaca, División de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiaca, Hospital de la Dirección de Previsión de Carabineros de Chile, Vital Apoquindo 1200, 2°Piso, Las Condes, 7601003 Santiago, Chile
3Departamento de Laboratorios Clínicos, Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4686, Macul, 7820436 Santiago, Chile
4Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital de la Dirección de Previsión de Carabineros de Chile, Vital Apoquindo 1200, 2°Piso, Las Condes, 7601003 Santiago, Chile
5Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Serena, Avenida Raúl Bitrán Nachary s/n, 1700000 La Serena, Chile

Received 3 September 2014; Accepted 21 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ilias Migdalis

Copyright © 2015 Mónica Acevedo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. G. M. M. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy et al., “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 1640–1645, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Dandona, A. Aljada, A. Chaudhuri, P. Mohanty, and R. Garg, “Metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 11, pp. 1448–1454, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 1135–1143, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. S. Park, J. Y. Park, and R. Yu, “Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-α and IL-6,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Ridker, E. Danielson, F. A. Fonseca et al., “Reduction in C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular event rates after initiation of rosuvastatin: a prospective study of the JUPITER trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9670, pp. 1175–1182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. M. Ridker, D. A. Morrow, L. M. Rose, N. Rifai, C. P. Cannon, and E. Braunwald, “Relative efficacy of atorvastatin 80 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in achieving the dual goals of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dl and C-reactive protein <2 mg/L: an analysis of the PROVE-IT TIMI-22 trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1644–1648, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Acevedo, P. Arnaiz, R. Corbalán et al., “Modificación del grosor intima-media carotídeo según factores de riesgo clásicos y sindrome metabólico con o sin inflamación,” Revista Chilena de Cardiología, vol. 28, pp. 337–348, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  8. P. P. Toth, P. A. McCullough, M. S. Wegner, and K. J. Colley, “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2: role in atherosclerosis and utility as a cardiovascular biomarker,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 425–438, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. The Lp-PLA2 Studies Collaboration, “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of coronary disease, stroke, and mortality: collaborative analysis of 32 prospective studies,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9725, pp. 1536–1544, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. M. Ballantyne, R. C. Hoogeveen, H. Bang et al., “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 837–842, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. J. Packard, D. S. J. O'Reilly, M. J. Caslake et al., “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 16, pp. 1148–1155, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Tsimikas, J. Willeit, M. Knoflach et al., “Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, ferritin levels, metabolic syndrome, and 10-year cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality: Results from the Bruneck study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 107–115, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Persson, J.-Å. Nilsson, J. J. Nelson, B. Hedblad, and G. Berglund, “The epidemiology of Lp-PLA2: distribution and correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based cohort,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 388–396, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 19, pp. 2560–2572, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 2735–2752, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. M. Ridker, J. E. Buring, N. R. Cook, and N. Rifai, “C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 391–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. M. Ridker, P. W. F. Wilson, and S. M. Grundy, “Should C-reactive protein be added to metabolic syndrome and to assessment of global cardiovascular risk?” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 23, pp. 2818–2825, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. S. Han, N. Sattar, K. Williams, C. Gonzalez-Villalpando, M. E. J. Lean, and S. M. Haffner, “Prospective study of C-reactive protein in relation to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the Mexico City diabetes study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2016–2021, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Ross, “Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 2, pp. 115–126, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Aronson, P. Bartha, O. Zinder et al., “Obesity is the major determinant of elevated C-reactive protein in subjects with the metabolic syndrome,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 674–679, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Tsimikas, J. T. Willerson, and P. M. Ridker, “C-reactive protein and other emerging blood biomarkers to optimize risk stratification of vulnerable patients,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 8, supplement, pp. C19–C31, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus