International Journal of Endocrinology / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Disproportionately Elevated Proinsulin Levels as an Early Indicator of β-Cell Dysfunction in Nondiabetic Offspring of Chinese Diabetic Patients

Table 1

The basic clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study groups.

Non-FDRs
NGT
FDRsT2DM value
NGTPre-DM

Male/female ()54/6070/10423/3238/330.245
Age (years)44.2 ± 8.243.5 ± 8.247.8 ± 7.049.2 ± 9.2<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 3.024.5 ± 3.225.7 ± 3.126.4 ± 2.5<0.001
WC (cm)80.7 ± 10.683.7 ± 9.687.6 ± 9.491.8 ± 5.9<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.83 ± 0.070.84 ± 0.070.86 ± 0.060.87 ± 0.060.002
SBP (mmHg)116.6 ± 13.4114.1 ± 13.7120.8 ± 18.1126.7 ± 11.9<0.001
DBP (mmHg)77.0 ± 8.874.9 ± 8.676.7 ± 8.777.7 ± 7.30.006
FBG (mmol/L)4.9 ± 0.54.9 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.68.6 ± 2.6<0.001
2 h BG (mmol/L)5.4 ± 1.25.7 ± 1.18.7 ± 1.015.0 ± 4.1<0.001
TC (mmol/L)4.8 ± 0.94.8 ± 0.84.7 ± 1.34.1 ± 2.00.010
TG (mmol/L)1.6 ± 1.31.6 ± 1.62.5 ± 2.33.7 ± 2.0<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.3 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.2<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.8 ± 0.72.9 ± 0.73.0 ± 0.73.1 ± 1.00.093
ALT (IU/L)21.2 ± 13.920.8 ± 16.621.5 ± 12.732.3 ± 23.90.015
AST (IU/L)22.0 ± 8.321.8 ± 8.723.6 ± 9.028.7 ± 12.50.004
Uric acid (μmol/L)297 ± 96305 ± 94307 ± 87330 ± 970.521
Creatine (μmol/L)62.6 ± 14.461.2 ± 12.160.3 ± 14.362.8 ± 17.10.725
Hypertension (%)18.519.630.656.5<0.001
Dyslipidemia (%)28.329.544.978.7<0.001
Overweight or obesity (%)38.638.958.266.2<0.001
MetS (%)5.17.850.971.7<0.001

Notes: data are means ± SD or frequency distribution. -values were obtained from ANOVA or tests for overall comparison across the four groups.
, , compared with NGT-non-FDRs
,  , compared with NGT-FDRs
, , compared with pre-DM-FDRs
Abbreviations: NGT-non-FDRs, normal glucose tolerance subjects with no family history of diabetes; NGT-FDRs, the first-degree relatives of T2DM with normal glucose tolerance; pre-DM-FDRs, first-degree relatives of T2DM with pre-diabetes; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference FBG: fasting blood glucose; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; TG: triglycerides; TC: total cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; AST: aspartate transaminase; ALT: alanine transaminase: MetS, metabolic syndrome.

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