|Notes: data are means ± SEM with adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR.|
Ln: natural log-transformed.
and , compared with NGT-non-FDRs using Bonferroni correction.
and , compared with NGT-FDRs.
and , compared with pre-DM-FDRs.
NGT-non-FDRs, normal glucose tolerance subjects with no family history of diabetes; NGT-FDRs, the first-degree relatives of T2DM with normal glucose tolerance; pre-DM-FDRs, first-degree relatives of T2DM with prediabetes; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA-B, homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function; PI/SI, proinsulin-to-specific insulin ratio.