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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2016, Article ID 6107572, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6107572
Research Article

Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

1Department of Physiology, School of Allied & Biomedical Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
2Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Received 7 April 2016; Revised 31 May 2016; Accepted 26 June 2016

Academic Editor: Mario Maggi

Copyright © 2016 Kwame Yeboah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), augmentation index (AIx), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV). Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao ( versus , ) and CAVI ( versus , ) than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all ); the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all ). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices.