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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2016, Article ID 6365830, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6365830
Research Article

Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

1Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China
2Department of Pediatrics, Qingdao Municipal Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Qingdao 266011, China
3Department of Child Health Care, Shandong Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Jinan 250021, China

Received 7 December 2015; Revised 25 January 2016; Accepted 28 February 2016

Academic Editor: Sabrina Corbetta

Copyright © 2016 Wendong Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI), etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months). The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5%) had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5%) and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI.